This publication offers fertilizer suggestions for a variety of crops, including field, pasture and hay crops, tree fruit, small fruit, ornamental plants and vegetable crops.
This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.
This fachseet offers information on alternaria black spot of strawberry, a fungus that grows on injured fruit.
Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in North Carolina and surrounding states. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material and is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.
Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.
Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.
Common leaf spot
This factsheet describes the signs and symptoms, as well as control, of Botrytis crown rot in strawberry production.
Leather rot, though occurring rarely in North Carolina, can cause substantial losses of fruit yield. This factsheet covers the identification and control of the disease.
This factsheet covers Phomopsis leaf blight, a fungus that causes lesions and defoliation in strawberries.
Diagnostic procedures and treatment of phytopthora crown rot of strawberry are discussed in this factsheet.
This publication offers information on phytoplasmas, organisms that multiply in the phloem of strawberry plants and are carried from plant-to-plant by leaf hoppers (vectors).
This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of powdery mildew in strawberries.
The symptoms and treatment techniques of southern stem blight in strawberries are discussed in this factsheet.
This publication discusses the signs and symptoms as well as management of a variety of strawberry viruses including Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge, Strawberry Mottle Virus and Raspberry Ringspot Virus.
This publication for commercial raspberry growers describes how to improve raspberry production. It includes information on varieties, growth and development.
Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development (see predisposing conditions below) and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry crown borer.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of European Corn Borer in strawberries.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of native drosophila species in strawberries.
Dicambia broadleaf weed killer injury is described.
This factsheet covers lightning injury in strawberries.
This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of drought injury in strawberries.
This factsheet discusses the symptoms and treatment of catfacing, an abiotic disorder in strawberries that causes misshaped fruit.
Sunburn of strawberry is described.
Terbacil herbicide injury is described.
This factsheet discusses the symptoms and management of water damage in strawberry production.
flumioxazin herbicide injury is described.
Glyphosate injury is described.
Gramoxone herbicide injury is described.
Oxyfluorfen herbicide injury is described.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry clipper weevils in commercial strawberry production.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of spotted wing drosophila in strawberries.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry rootworm beetles in strawberries.
Clopyralid herbicide injury of strawberry is described and management provided.
This publication covers leafrollers in strawberries and their impact in North Carolina.
This publication covers the corn earworm in strawberries and its impact in North Carolina.
2,4-D herbicide injury described and management provided.
This factsheet describes aphid biology and management in strawberries.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of cutworms in strawberries.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of cylamen mites in strawberries.
This factsheet describes the biology and management of thrips in strawberries.
Gnomonia causes leaf blotch and stem-end rot of strawberry. The pathogen typically is introduced on transplant material and can build up in plug facilities and in fruiting fields. It rarely becomes an economic concern.
This factsheet describes slugs and their impact on strawberries.
This factsheet describes tarnished plat bugs, also known as lygus bugs, and their impact on strawberry crops.
This factsheet describes sap beetles and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.
This publication describes the spittlebug and its impacts on the North Carolina strawberry crop.
Magnesium deficiency of strawberries is discussed.
Calcium deficiency of strawberries is discussed.
Sulfur deficiency of strawberries is discussed in this fact sheet.
Manganese deficiency of strawberries in discussed in this guide.
Zinc deficiency of strawberries is described in this guide.
Copper deficiency of strawberries is discussed in this guide.
Molybdenum deficiency of strawberries is discussed in this guide.
This guide describes symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in strawberries.
Phosphorus deficiency of strawberries is discussed.
Potassium deficiency of strawberries is described.
Sodium toxicity of strawberries is discussed in this publication.
Boron deficiency of strawberries is described and corrective information provided.
Boron toxicity symptoms are described and management options discussed.
Botrytis rot, or gray mold as it is often called, is a serious disease in all strawberry production areas and is a disease of concern in most years. The disease is a problem not only in the field, but also during storage, transit, and marketing of strawberry fruit, due to onset of severe rot as the fruits begin to ripen. Other parts infected by the fungus include leaves, crown, petals, flower stalks, and fruit caps. Crown rot is discussed elsewhere. Disease is most severe during bloom and harvest in seasons with lengthy periods of cloud and rain complemented by cool temperatures.
Iron deficiency symptoms and corrective procedures for strawberries are discussed.
Poor pollination is described and management provided.
Hail damage is described.
Frost injury described and frost prevention strategies provided.
Fumigation related injury of strawberries is described with fumigant management and corrective measures provided.
This factsheet provides information on crickets and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.
This factsheet provides information on the twospotted spider mite and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.
This factsheet provides information on the red imported fire ant and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.
This factsheet provides information on the sugarcane beetle and its impact on North Carolina strawberries.
This factsheet provides information on whiteflies and their impact on North Carolina strawberries.
Wind damage of strawberry is described.
Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided.
Pest management and cultural recommendations for the commercial production of apples in North Carolina and surrounding apple-growing regions in Alabama, Arkansas, South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee.
In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.
With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.
This publication is a home gardener's guide to planting, maintaining and harvesting blackberries.
Muscadine grapes are well adapted to the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, where temperatures seldom fall below 10°F. Considerable injury generally occurs where winter temperatures drop below 0°F. Muscadines have a high degree of tolerance to pests and diseases that makes the production of bunch grapes nearly impossible in eastern North Carolina. There is no other fruit with such strong personal associations for so many native North Carolinians.
Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. When black plastic is combined with fumigation by methyl bromide, excellent control of most weeds in the row can be expected. However, weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time and can establish in the row. They emerge in late fall or spring, grow under the plastic for a period of time, and emerge from any holes in the plastic.
The kiwifruit is a large, woody, deciduous vine native to the Yangtze Valley of China. In the Eastern United States, kiwifruit vines have fruited at Virginia Beach, Virginia, and at several locations in South Carolina, and are part of evaluation programs in Alabama and Georgia. The first commercial shipments began in 1980 from a planting in South Carolina located about 30 miles north of Augusta, Georgia. This publication discuses the history of kiwifruit planting in North Carolina and considers the potential to grow the fruit in the state's climate.
The objective of this leaflet is to discuss weed-control considerations and herbicide options for grape vineyards in the Southeastern United States. It should be used as a guide for growers making vineyard floor management decisions. It should not be used as an alternative to a pesticide label.
How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests in watermelons in North Carolina is covered in detail; this is part of the Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture series.
Blueberries are a native North American fruit, and North Carolina is one of the largest producers of highbush blueberries. Although commercial production is mostly limited to southeastern North Carolina, blueberries can be grown anywhere in the state if the right blueberry species and proper soil modifications are used. Limiting factors include pH, water availability and cold-hardiness.
Blueberries can be grown in home gardens anywhere in North Carolina if the right species and proper soil modifications are used. Blueberries are typically used in the landscape as hedges for screening purposes, but they can also be used in cluster plantings, or as single specimen plants. Blueberries are an ideal year round addition to the landscape. They have delicate white or pink flowers in the spring, the summer fruit has an attractive sky blue color, and the fall foliage adds great red and yellow colors to the landscape.
This publication describes how to include nutrient analysis of soil and plant tissue in tree crop management, specifically apple trees. Soil sampling and plant tissue analysis are discussed.
Vegetables are 80 to 95 percent water. Because they contain so much water, their yield and quality suffer very quickly from drought. When vegetables are sold, a "sack of water" with a small amount of flavoring and some vitamins is being sold. Thus, for good yields and high quality, irrigation is essential to the production of most vegetables. If water shortages occur early in the crop's development, maturity may be delayed and yields are often reduced. If a moisture shortage occurs later in the growing season, quality is often reduced even though total yields are not affected.
This publication covers site selection, variety selection, weed control, pruning, diseases and insects and harvesting for peach growers in North Carolina.
This publication provides information to help the commercial grower increase crop production when growing blackberries in North Carolina.
Blueberry production in Western North Carolina differs from the main commercial production areas in the southeastern part of the state because of differing climate and soil conditions. Highbush blueberry cultivars should be used exclusively; rabbiteye blueberries will not consistently survive low winter temperatures that occur in Western North Carolina. This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting blueberries in Western North Carolina.
Pruning a plant reduces its ultimate adult size and the crop yield in at least the following season. To compensate for this loss of bearing area and yield, other factors, largely economic, must be considered in planning a pruning program.
Commercial blueberries are generally planted in low areas with high organic-matter content. These sites satisfy the cultural requirements of blueberries for a constant and uniform moisture supply. However, on cold, still nights when radiation frosts occur, heavy cold air from higher surrounding areas "drains" into the low areas causing lower temperatures. Also, the high organic content, especially if the soil is dry, acts as an insulator to restrict heat in the soil from moving up around the plants. The cultural requirement for a uniform soil moisture makes selecting higher sites that are less subject to radiation frosts much less practical than with other fruit crops. This factsheet discusses protecting blueberry plants from freezing.
The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season.
Commercial apple orchards with trees planted close together on dwarfing or size-controlling rootstocks are referred to as high density plantings. When size-controlling rootstocks are used, tree densities increase from traditional densities of 150 to 250 trees/acre to 500 to 1,000+ trees/acre. Benefits of planting higher-density orchards include earlier production (especially with "fad" varieties); quicker return on investment; training, pruning and harvesting from the ground; potential increased fruit quality; and greater pesticide application efficiency.
Muskmelon is commonly known in the trade as a cantaloupe. However, no cantaloupes are actually grown commercially in the United States, only muskmelons. Cantaloupes are a rough warty fruit while muskmelon have the characteristic netting on the fruit rind. This publication covers the growing and harvesting of muskmelons in North Carolina.
This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.
As a service to our readers, we have cross referenced small fruit cultivars with the nurseries where they may be purchased. If any of the nurseries included in this list sells a particular cultivar, the corresponding letter code will appear after the name (e.g. Sweet Charlie Edi, Nou, She). Some cultivars have not been fully tested by NC State University and are included here as worthy of trial. Please consult your local agricultural agent for specific cultivar recommendations best adapted to your area
In the case of specialty or non-traditional small fruit crops in the Southeast, red raspberries seem to get the most interest and coverage by newspapers and popular press. In North Carolina, red raspberries developed in northern United States and southern Canada have difficulty in our hot, humid summer climate of the piedmont and coastal plain. And, in the foothills and mountains of western North Carolina, the raspberry 'floricanes' are especially prone to winter freeze injury as temperatures in these areas may fluctuate in January and February by as much as 40-50°F in a given 24 hour period.
This leaflet covers the training and pruning of thornless blackberry canes for the home gardener.
This publication lists the references used in parts 1-4 of the Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms series.
Field heat should be removed from fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers as quickly as possible after harvest. Each commodity should be maintained at its lowest safe temperature.
At times, it is necessary to transport or store different commodities together. In such mixed loads, it is very important to combine only those commodities that are compatible with respect to their requirements for: Temperature, Relative humidity, Atmosphere; oxygen and carbon dioxide, Protection from odors, Protection from physiologically active gases, such as ethylene.
Fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers must be in excellent condition and have excellent quality if maximum shelf life is desired. The best possible quality of any commodity exists at the moment of harvest. From that point on, quality cannot be improved, only maintained. Remember that shelf life begins at harvest.
Growing apple trees in the home garden can be fun and rewarding. Several factors are important to consider before planting for successful apple production. Apple variety and rootstock, site selection, proper planting, training and pruning, adequate fertility, and pest control all contribute to healthy and productive trees. A brief discussion of these considerations follows.
Grapes are welcome summer treats that can be eaten fresh, processed into jellies, jams, juice or even fermented into wine. Grapes are adapted to many soil types, and can be quite long-lived. There are basically two kinds of grapes grown in North Carolina, bunch grapes and muscadine. Bunch grapes produce berries in large clusters, and grow best in the mountains and piedmont areas. In coastal plain areas, Pierce's disease kills or shortens the life expectancy of many popular bunch grapes. Muscadine grapes, exemplified by the Scuppernong variety and noted for having smaller clusters, are not affected by this disease.
The oriental persimmon is an easy-to-grow tree which is adaptable to much of North Carolina. The tree has a compact spreading growth habit and low maintenance requirements. The ornamental beauty of its orange fruit and bright red foliage in the fall makes it an attractive plant in the home landscape. The tree is winter-hardy in eastern North Carolina, as well as the Lower Piedmont and Coastal Plain areas.
Flowering crabapples have tremendous potential as small/medium sized flowering trees that can be grown all across North Carolina. These deciduous, spring flowering trees are adaptable to a wide range of soil conditions and have a variety of ornamental characteristics to choose from, including an assortment of flower color and fragrance, fruit size and color, and tree form.
Strawberries are a welcome addition to any home garden. They are relatively easy to grow, require a minimum of space, and virtually no chemicals are needed. From as few as 25 transplants to start a matted row, a berry yield in excess of 50 pounds can be achieved one year after planting. Strawberries require a site that is open to direct sunlight most of the day. Try to avoid very low-lying areas prone to spring frosts, and you should definitely plan to purchase a white spunbonded row cover to protect open strawberry blossoms from spring frosts/freezes. The same cover may be used for bird control during harvest.
The commercial apple industry worldwide is in the midst of a major change in fruit production management systems. With size-controlling rootstocks tree size has been reduced and the number of trees per acre, referred to as tree density, has increased significantly. Some orchards in Europe have exceeded 5,000 trees per acre. However, in North Carolina, tree densities that are being commercially evaluated are around 450 trees per acre with a maximum of approximately 1,100 trees per acre.
This factsheet offers a chart with commonly-grown apple varieties in North Carolina and their relative bloom date.
This factsheet offers information on the chilling requirements for a variety of peach trees.
This publication describes how to enhance the activity of mite predators in North Carolina apple systems, and how to determine if natural enemies alone can maintain pest mites below damaging levels, or if miticides also will be needed.
This publication contains color photos and detailed descriptions used to help growers identify and control strawberry diseases.
Juice and wine information was collected from 90 grape cultivars and new selections thought to be promising choices for North Carolina growers and vinters. This publication reports results for 52 bunch grapes and 38 muscadines from 1968 to 1989.
This publication presents the factors that make honey bees the best pollination option for apple orchards.
The purpose of this bulletin is to summarize the specific characteristics of the cultivars released by the NCARS. A brief description of the important characteristics will be followed by a review of each cultivar in order of ripening sequence. Ripening dates provided are average dates calculated from years of observation at the Sandhills Research Station.