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Kale

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Kale Handout

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda G. Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Collard Greens

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Collard Greens Handout

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Asparagus

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda G. Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Asparagus Handout

By: Extension Master Gardener Volunteers, Linda Brandon, Jeannie Leonard, Lucy Bradley Grow It, Eat It

This series of publications provides information about how to grow, harvest, and prepare a variety of fruits and vegetables from your garden. Each publication features recipes, recommended uses, nutrition information, and more.

Rhizopus Soft Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Andrew Scruggs, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This factsheet covers the identification and management of Rhizopus soft rot of sweetpotatoes.

Lettuce Drop

By: Michael Adams, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This factsheet discusses the identification and management of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sclerotinia minor, a fungal pathogen of lettuce and other vegetable crops.

Botrytis Gray Mold of Tomato

By: Dreama Milks, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This factsheet discusses the identification of Botrytis gray mold, a fungus of tomatoes.

Evaluating Starter Fertilizer Sources in Organic No-Till Corn Production

By: Rachel Atwell, Chris Reberg-Horton

This factsheet presents findings from studies to evaluate different starter fertilizer sources and their impacts on yield and weed competition in organic no-till corn production, using a cover crop mulch for weed suppression.

Black Rot of Sweetpotato

By: Andrew Scruggs, Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This publication covers the identification and control of black rot in sweetpotatoes.

Tomato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This factsheet describes the identification and treatment of tomato late blight.

Potato Late Blight

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

Potato blight, the pathogen best known for causing the Irish potato famine, is described in this factsheet.

Sweetpotato Scurf

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This factsheet describes the identification and management of sweetpotato scurf.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This factsheet covers downy mildew disease in cucurbits, including identification, transmission and disease management and control.

Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Saunia Withers Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

Gummy stem blight, a fungal pathogen of cucurbits, is discussed in this vegetable pathology factsheet.

Anthracnose of Cucurbits

By: Lina Quesada-Ocampo, Michael Adams Vegetable Pathology Fact Sheets

This vegetable pathology factsheet describes the identification and treatment of anthracnose in cucurbits.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

Commercial Production of Staked Tomatoes in the Southeast

By: Kelly Ivors

This production guide covers all aspects of commercial staked tomato production--from varieties and transplants to site selection, cover cropping, production systems, fertilization, pest management, and harvesting. An online appendix of tomato pests includes color photographs to assist growers in identifying insect and disease pests.

Specialty Crops in North Carolina: Acreage and Distribution

By: Roger Batts, Jeanine Davis, Gina Fernandez, Chris Gunter, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Sara Spayd

With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.

Commercial Luffa Sponge Gourd Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Luffa sponge products are readily available in the cosmetic and bath section of department stores, discount stores, pharmacies, and specialty shops. This factsheet covers planting, harvesting and processing luffa gourds.

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Weed Management in Lettuce

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Weed competition in lettuce reduces both yield and head quality. This cool-season crop faces competition from winter annuals as well as early summer weeds. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to control weeds in lettuce, including advice for lettuce grown with plastic mulch.

Sources of Shiitake Spawn

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication lists sources of shiitake mushroom spawns for cultivation.

Organic Sweet Corn Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

In most of the south, sweet corn can be produced from early spring until fall. However, sweet corn does have some specific environmental and cultural needs that must be met for the plant to produce high-marketable yields. Corn is a warm-season crop that requires high temperatures for optimum germination and rapid growth. In general, sweet corn does not tolerate cold weather, and frost will injure sweet corn at any stage of growth. Other stressful climatic conditions, such as drought or flooding, can reduce yields and cause small, deformed ears.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Summer Squash Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Summer squash are grown throughout North Carolina in both the spring and fall. A major portion of the state's production is located in Sampson and Henderson counties and adjoining areas. Summer squash are harvested as immature fruit, have soft skin, and are very perishable (1- to 2-week shelf life).

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflet

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Home Garden - Asparagus Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Asparagus has been considered a garden delicacy since Roman times. Any home gardener can grow and enjoy this spring vegetable. Asparagus is a perennial. If you plant and manage properly it will produce for 15 years or more. Since this crop will occupy the land for many years you should start the asparagus bed properly -- location, soil type, soil fertility, size and age of crowns and correct planting are important.

Turnips and Rutabagas

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Turnips and rutabagas are among the most commonly grown and widely adapted root crops. They are members of the Cruciferae or mustard family and belong to the genus Brassica. The two are similar in plant size and general characteristics. Turnip leaves are usually light green, thin and hairy, while the rutabagas are bluish-green, thick and smooth. The roots of turnips generally have little or no neck and a distinct taproot, while rutabaga roots are often more elongated and have a thick, leafy neck and roots originating from the underside of the edible root as well as from the taproot.

Celery

By: William McCarth, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet covers celery, which could be a very profitable crop in North Carolina. A harvest period in late June or early July, and one in October, would fill market voids when other major celery producing areas are not harvesting. Celery, however, is not an easy crop to grow. Although it is a cool season crop, exposure of juvenile plants to temperatures below 40 to 50ºF for more than 5 to 10 days can cause premature bolting, making the crop unsalable. Special attention must be given to maintaining a steady water supply and providing the proper amount of nutrients to allow for constant growth.

Fresh Market Tomato Production Piedmont and Coastal Plain of North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The tomato is a warm season crop. With special production practices you can produce your first tomatoes in 60 days. This crop can be grown for production from June through November by choosing the right varieties and production practices. Generally, tomatoes require a large investment in time and labor, but increase in intensity of management is repaid by increased yields and profits.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Using Plastic Mulches and Drip Irrigation for Vegetables

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Muskmelons, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, squash, eggplant, watermelons and okra are vegetable crops that have shown significant increases in earliness, yield, and fruit quality when grown on plastic mulch. Some less valuable crops such as sweet corn, snap beans, southern peas and pumpkins have shown similar responses. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of using plastic mulches are outlined in this publication.

Drip or Trickle Irrigation Systems: An Outline of Components

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This checklist is provided to help growers recognize components of a drip or trickle irrigation system and to assist in planning and installing such a system. A grower should always consult an irrigation specialist or irrigation company that designs and installs drip or trickle systems to ensure the system is properly engineered and designed for his water source and field topography.

Drip or Trickle Irrigation Systems: An Operations and Troubleshooting Checklist

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This leaflet is intended to assist growers in troubleshooting drip or trickle irrigation systems. For major problems consult an irrigation specialist or irrigation company that designs and installs drip or trickle irrigation systems.

Vegetable Crop Irrigation

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Vegetables are 80 to 95 percent water. Because they contain so much water, their yield and quality suffer very quickly from drought. When vegetables are sold, a "sack of water" with a small amount of flavoring and some vitamins is being sold. Thus, for good yields and high quality, irrigation is essential to the production of most vegetables. If water shortages occur early in the crop's development, maturity may be delayed and yields are often reduced. If a moisture shortage occurs later in the growing season, quality is often reduced even though total yields are not affected.

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Beets

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Beets have been cultivated for centuries. Though grown mostly for the roots, beet greens are also popular in many areas. Beets are a common item in vegetable gardens, but few are produced in North Carolina. This publication covers how to grow and harvest beets.

Broccoli Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Broccoli is a cool-season crop, closely related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard. It can be grown as either a spring or a fall crop. Broccoli is a high-quality vegetable for fresh use and is one of the more popular frozen vegetables. This publication covers growing and harvesting this highly nutritious vegetable.

Broccoli Raab

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Broccoli-raab (also known as rapa, rapine, rappone, fall and spring raab or turnip broccoli) is a rapidly growing annual when grown in spring, but a biennial in fall plantings. The leaves with the seed-stalks, before blooming, are cut for greens and are sold to ethnic markets (primarily Italian).

Brussels Sprouts

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication discusses the Brussels sprout, a cool season crop, belonging to the cabbage family, and closely related to cauliflower, broccoli, kale, collards, etc. Like cauliflower, it thrives best in a cool humid climate, thus commercial production of this crop is concentrated in the "fog-belt" of California with limited production in the Long Island, New York area. The edible portion of this crop is the "bud" or small cabbage-like head which grows in the axils of each leaf. Occasionally the tops are used as greens.

Cabbage

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Cabbage is grown commercially in eastern North Carolina as both a spring and fall crop, and in the mountains as an early summer and fall crop. Cabbage acreage in North Carolina averages 10,000 to 12,000 acres. The biggest problem in growing this crop is insect control.

Cauliflower

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Cauliflower is a cool season crop, closely related to broccoli, cabbage, kale, turnips, and mustard. It is more exacting in its climatic requirements than most other crops in this family. It grows best in a comparatively cool temperature with a moist atmosphere. With proper management cauliflower can be grown in North Carolina as either a spring or fall crop, although the fall crop will generally produce better quality.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations over 3,000 feet.

Collards

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The collard is a cool season crop that should be grown during early spring or fall. The mature plant will withstand frosts and light to medium freezes. It is one of the most popular garden vegetables in the south and is rapidly becoming a delicacy in northern states as well.

Trellised Cucumbers

By: Jeanine Davis, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Fresh market (slicer) cucumbers have been produced commercially in North Carolina for many years. The average yield from commercial fields has been 850 to 950 bushels per acre or 2 to 3 times the average yield from non-trellised fields. This publication covers growing and harvesting fresh market cucumbers.

Eggplant

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication covers growing and harvesting eggplant in North Carolina. Eggplant is a warm season plant that is very susceptible to frost. It requires a relatively long growing season to produce profitable yields. Growth is checked by cool weather. Proper cultural practices can yield 500 bushels per acre.

Greens

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Leafy greens, such as turnips, mustard, collards, kale, and spinach are cool season crops. They should be grown during early spring or fall for maximum yields and quality, but this season can be extended if markets warrant. Kale and spinach can withstand temperature into the upper teens and are often harvested through winter in the east. The other greens may withstand medium frosts.

Upland Cress

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting upland cress, a green often eaten like spinach or kale; however, in some areas, it is frequently eaten raw as a salad or garnish.

Spinach

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Spinach is a cool-season crop and belongs to the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) as do beets and Swiss chard. This crop is becoming more popular as evidenced by increases in consumption of both fresh (salads) and processed spinach. Spinach reaches edible maturity quickly (37 to 45 days) and thrives best during the cool, moist seasons of the year.

Green Bunch Onions

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

When onions are harvested in the green or immature stage they are called "green bunch onions." These onions are sold in bunches tied with a rubber band. This is a popular crop for home and market gardeners in the fall, winter and early spring. Acreages are usually small because of the amount of hand labor required for planting and preparation for market.

Okra

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Okra is grown throughout North Carolina in home gardens and for commercial markets. It is a warm season crop that belongs to the cotton (Mallow) family and should not be planted until the soil has thoroughly warmed in the spring. Okra is referred to as 'Gumbo' in some areas.

Commercial Asparagus Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Asparagus has been grown for many years. The Ancient Greeks and Romans relished this crop. It originated in Asia Minor and is a member of the lily family. California, Michigan, and Washington are the major producing states, but there is some commercial production in many of the northern and western states. Warm regions such as Northern Mexico and Southern California also grow it. This publication covers recent research that has shown that asparagus can be grown at a profit in North Carolina.

Greenhouse Vegetable List of References

By: Mary Peet Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet offers a list of materials available from libraries, publishers, institutions or on the web regarding growing greenhouse vegetables. Superscripts indicate a source for ordering from the address list at the end of the publication.

Fresh Market Production Cucumbers

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

The slicing cucumber is an important crop to North Carolina, with yearly production fluctuating between 5,000 to 8,000 acres, depending on season and market conditions. North Carolina slicing production accounts for approximately 10% of the U.S. production acreage.

Commercial Production of Pickling and Slicing Cucumbers in North Carolina

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Charles Averre, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, Gerald Holmes, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen

This comprehensive factsheet for farmers describes recommended practices for producing pickling and slicing cucumbers.

Growing Vegetable Transplants

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

The growing media chosen to grow vegetable transplants should be sterilized to prevent seedlings from being killed by the fungi that causes damping-off disease. A growing mix well suited for growing transplants can be prepared by using one part loamy garden soil, one part shredded peat moss, and one part sand. Sterilize this soil-peat-sand mix by baking it in an oven for about one hour at 210°F.

Growing a Fall Vegetable Garden

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Many vegetables are well adapted to planting in the summer for fall harvest. Planting a fall garden will extend the gardening season so you can continue to harvest fresh produce after earlier crops have finished. The fall harvest can be extended even further by providing protection from early frosts or by planting in cold frames or hotbeds.

Home Vegetable Gardening

By: Larry Bass

If you have a home vegetable garden, this publication can help you learn about selecting a site, gardening tools, fertilizer, watering techniques and more.

Home Vegetable Gardening: A Quick Reference Guide

By: Larry Bass

This publication gives home gardeners a list of vegetable varieties that grow well in North Carolina, and it provides information on spacing between plants and planting dates.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Cucumbers (Fresh and Processing)

By: Gerald Holmes, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Kenneth Sorensen, Allan Thornton, Stephen Toth Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds, and other crop pests in North Carolina is covered in detail; part of the Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture series.

Presprouting Sweetpotatoes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, George Wilson Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sweetpotato seed roots should be pre-sprouted for maximum transplant production. Presprouting is the process by which sweetpotato seed stock is conditioned to produce sprouts (transplants) prior to bedding. Some refer to this as "waking up" the sweetpotatoes after they have been asleep in storage during the winter. This reinforces the often overlooked fact that sweetpotatoes are still alive.

Radish

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Radish is a cool-season crop which grows best in spring and fall. It requires 3 to 6 weeks from seeding to harvest. This factsheet covers growing and harvesting radishes in North Carolina.

Commercial Carrot Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Carrots can be produced almost year-round in parts of North Carolina. Both fresh market and processing types hold potential. This publication will assist commercial farmers with growing and harvesting carrots.

Growing Pumpkins and Winter Squash

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Pumpkins were used by American Indians long before Columbus visited our shores, and pumpkins readily found their way to the first Thanksgiving table. Pumpkins were used by early settlers much as we use them today – for food and decoration. This factsheet covers growing and harvesting pumpkins in North Carolina.

Storing Winter Squash and Pumpkins

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Charles Averre Horticulture Information Leaflet

Harvested squash and pumpkins are still very much alive even though they are mature and have been removed from the vine. The objective of curing and storing is to prolong the storage life of the fruit by slowing the rate of respiration and protecting against storage rots.

Growing Gourds

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Gourds are very closely related to cucumbers, squash and melons. They have been grown for both ornamental and utility purposes for many years. Several societies have been established to bring together people who are fascinated by the uniqueness of these plants.

What is the Difference Between a Sweetpotato and a Yam?

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Several decades ago, when orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were introduced in the southern United States, producers and shippers desired to distinguish them from the more traditional, white-fleshed types. The African word nyami, referring to the starchy, edible root of the Dioscorea genus of plants, was adopted in its English form, yam. Yams in the U.S. are actually sweetpotatoes with relatively moist texture and orange flesh. Although the terms are generally used interchangeably, the U.S. Department of Agriculture requires that the label "yam" always be accompanied by "sweetpotato." The following information outlines several differences between sweetpotatoes and yams.

Sweet Corn Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Field corn was grown in North America before 200 B.C. Field corn is produced primarily for animal feed and industrial uses such as ethanol, cooking oil, etc. In contrast, sweet corn is produced for human consumption as either a fresh or processed product.

Harvesting Vegetables

By: Ervin Evans, Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

The nutritional content, freshness, and flavor that vegetables possess depend upon the stage of maturity and the time of day at which they are harvested. Overly mature vegetables will be stringy and coarse. When possible, harvest vegetables during the cool part of the morning, and process or store them as soon as possible. If for some reason processing must be delayed, cool the vegetables in ice water or crushed ice, and store them in the refrigerator to preserve flavor and quality. The following guidelines can be used for harvesting vegetable crops.

Bulb Onions

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Southern Peas

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Southern peas originated in India in prehistoric times and moved to Africa, then to America. In India Southern peas are known by 50 common names and in the United States are called "Field peas," "Crowder peas," "Cowpeas" and "blackeyes," but Southern peas is the preferred name. This publication covers growing and harvesting Southern peas in North Carolina.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

  • Vegetables

Commercial Potato Production in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders, Nancy Creamer Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet covers growing and harvesting potatoes for commercial sale in North Carolina.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W. P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Part 5: References

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

This publication lists the references used in parts 1-4 of the Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms series.

Part 2: Cooling - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

Field heat should be removed from fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers as quickly as possible after harvest. Each commodity should be maintained at its lowest safe temperature.

Part 4: Mixed Loads - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

At times, it is necessary to transport or store different commodities together. In such mixed loads, it is very important to combine only those commodities that are compatible with respect to their requirements for: Temperature, Relative humidity, Atmosphere; oxygen and carbon dioxide, Protection from odors, Protection from physiologically active gases, such as ethylene.

Part 1: Quality Maintenance - Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

By: George Wilson, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes Postharvest Handling and Cooling of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers for Small Farms

Fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers must be in excellent condition and have excellent quality if maximum shelf life is desired. The best possible quality of any commodity exists at the moment of harvest. From that point on, quality cannot be improved, only maintained. Remember that shelf life begins at harvest.

Mini-Gardening

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

Lack of yard space is no excuse for not growing a vegetable garden. Regardless of whether you live in an apartment, condominium or mobile home, some space us available for growing a few of your favorite vegetables. However, the area you choose to grow your garden must receive five hours or more of sunlight daily. As a general rule, leafy vegetables such as cabbage and mustard greens can tolerate more shade than root vegetables like radishes and beets. Vegetables that bear fruit such as peppers, tomatoes, and cucumbers will need the most sun.

Bean Sprouts and Other Vegetable Seed Sprouts

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sprouts from mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) have been used for food since ancient times. These sprouts have a nutrient value similar to asparagus and mushrooms, which contain high quantities of Vitamin A. Sprouts can be canned or frozen in addition to eating them fresh. Mung bean seeds can be purchased from mail-order commercial seed companies and health food chain stores. (Caution: Regardless of the source, do not use seeds that have been treated with a fungicide. Treated seeds are not edible and can be recognized by the coating of pink or green dust on the seed coat.)

Precision Seeding for Vegetable Crops

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Precision seeding is defined as the placing of desired numbers of seeds at a precise depth and spacing. Precision seeding has many advantages for the vegetable grower over conventional dribble (Planet Jr.) or multiseed drop-plate seeding systems (most corn planters). However, the seeding accuracy is not a substitute for proper land preparation, irrigation, and other crop management practices necessary to obtain a good stand of a vegetable crop. Precision seeding simply allows the vegetable grower to reduce cost and increase reliability of his crop production.

Broccoli Production Guide for Western North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Broccoli is a popular vegetable for use both fresh and frozen. The edible portion of the broccoli plant consists of the upper stem and the unopened flower buds. Broccoli is a cool-season crop that is closely related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, mustard, and turnips. It can be grown in western North Carolina as either an early (spring) or a late season (fall) crop at the lower elevations (below 2,500 feet) or during mid-summer at elevations above 2,500 feet.

Starter Fertilizers for Corn Production

By: Joe Zublena, John R. Anderson SoilFacts

Corn starter fertilizers have been used successfully to increase early plant growth, nutrient uptake, and yields in research trials and on the farm. They also promote earlier maturity, improve southern corn billbug control, and help suppress weeds through earlier shading. Use of starter fertilizers is increasing in North Carolina and the southeastern United States. This factsheet presents the principles of successful starter fertilizer use, research results relevant to North Carolina, and management suggestions for corn producers.

Container Vegetable Gardening

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

Many people who live in an apartment, condominium, or mobile homes do not grow a vegetable garden because space is not available for a garden plot. Lack of yard space is no excuse for not gardening, since many kinds of vegetables can be readily grown in containers. In addition to providing five hours or more of full sun, attention must be given to choosing the proper container, using a good soil mix, planting and spacing requirements, fertilizing, watering, and variety selection.

Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Much success in growing tomatoes can be attributed to use of a few proven techniques. Choosing a variety that has proven to be a true performer should be at the top of every gardener's list. Better Boy, Whopper, Celebrity, and Mountain Pride are among some of the best selections. Better Boy, Celebrity, and Whopper are VFN, which means they carry resistance to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. It is best to experiment with several varieties in order to find the ideal tomato for your taste buds.

Guidelines for Sweetpotato Seed Stock and Transplant Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sweetpotato production should be planned as a part of your total annual farm management scheme. Sweetpotatoes should not be grown just "once in a while" or just in those years you think you'll be able to "get rich quick." Commitment to an ongoing production program is required in order for you to be a successful grower.