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Browse by Department: Horticultural Science

Special Claims and the Approval Process for Niche Meat Production

By: Sarah Blacklin, Joanna Lelekacs Local Foods

With increasing demand for product transparency, a growing number of producers, processing plant operators, and packinghouse operators are interested in adding claims to the labels of their meat and poultry products to further characterize or add value to those products. Label claims become increasingly important for producers and plant operators selling to secondary markets, such as retail grocers, rather than direct to consumer. This guide provides information to producers about special claims and the requirements and documentation needed to support those claims.

Sustainable Practices for Plasticulture Strawberry Production in the Southeast

By: Amanda McWhirt, Gina Fernandez, Michelle Schroeder-Moreno

This publication will outline sustainable management practices that are appropriate for strawberry growers in the Southeast, the benefits of these practices, and how they may be incorporated into plasticulture production systems.

Maximizing Your SmartFresh℠ Investments

By: Michael Parker, Steve McArtney, Robert Tom Hoyt, J.D. Obermiller Horticulture Information Leaflet

SmartFresh℠ (1-methylcyclopropene, MCP) is a relatively new tool for postharvest management of apples. In 2002, SmartFresh was approved for commercial use on apples by the Environmental Protection Agency under a reduced risk program because of the very low toxicity of the product and the fact that treated fruit have no detectable residue. It is thought to bind irreversibly to the ethylene receptors in plant tissues making the crops insensitive to ethylene and subsequently retarding many of the ethylene mediated responses such as fruit softening in apples. SmartFresh can maintain apple firmness and acidity and decrease scald and greasiness even when stored under less than ideal storage temperatures.

Choosing and Using Edible Flowers

By: Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley

Flowers have traditionally been used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian English, and Middle Eastern. Early American settlers also used flowers as food. Today, there is a renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color, and fragrance. Many herbal flowers have the same flavor as their leaves, though others, such as chamomile and lavender blossoms, have a subtler flavor.

Tips for Produce Growers Marketing Fresh Produce to Retail Grocers: Understanding PLU and UPC Codes

By: Ariel Fugate, Patricia Tripp, Joanna Lelekacs Local Foods

PLU and UPC codes are two widely used tracking mechanisms that help retailers efficiently ring produce into the register in the checkout lane, track sales, control inventory, and market products. Being knowledgeable about these labels in advance of approaching a retailer shows a grower’s awareness of the retailer’s industry. This fact sheet contains information adapted from the Produce Marketing Association (Produce Marketing Association 2013).

Growing Raspberries in North Carolina

By: Gina Fernandez, Frank Louws, Jim Ballington, Barclay Poling

This publication for commercial raspberry growers describes how to improve raspberry production. It includes information on varieties, growth and development.

Grafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants

By: Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. Ranney

This publication provides information on budding and grafting techniques, which can be used successfully in commercial operations.

Sunburn

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Sunburn of strawberry is described.

Herbicide injury -Clopyralid(Stinger)

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Clopyralid herbicide injury of strawberry is described and management provided.

Herbicide injury 2,4-D (broadleaf weed killer)

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

2,4-D herbicide injury described and management provided.

Strawberry Magnesium (Mg) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Magnesium deficiency of strawberries is discussed.

Strawberry Calcium (Ca) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Calcium deficiency of strawberries is discussed.

Strawberry Sulfur (S) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Sulfur deficiency of strawberries is discussed in this fact sheet.

Strawberry Manganese (Mn) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Manganese deficiency of strawberries in discussed in this guide.

Strawberry Zinc (Zn) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Zinc deficiency of strawberries is described in this guide.

Strawberry Copper (Cu) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Copper deficiency of strawberries is discussed in this guide.

Strawberry Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Molybdenum deficiency of strawberries is discussed in this guide.

Strawberry Nitrogen (N) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

This guide describes symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in strawberries.

Strawberry Phosphorus (P) Deficiency

By: Brian Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Phosphorus deficiency of strawberries is discussed.

Strawberry Potassium (K) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Potassium deficiency of strawberries is described.

Strawberry Sodium (Na) Toxicity

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Sodium toxicity of strawberries is discussed in this publication.

Strawberry Boron (B) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Boron deficiency of strawberries is described and corrective information provided.

Strawberry Boron (B) Toxicity

By: Brian Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Boron toxicity symptoms are described and management options discussed.

Strawberry Iron (Fe) Deficiency

By: Brian E. Whipker Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Iron deficiency symptoms and corrective procedures for strawberries are discussed.

Poor Pollination

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Poor pollination is described and management provided.

Frost damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Frost injury described and frost prevention strategies provided.

Fumigant injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Fumigation related injury of strawberries is described with fumigant management and corrective measures provided.

Wind Damage

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Wind damage of strawberry is described.

Winter Injury

By: Rocco Schiavone Strawberry Abiotic Disorders

Winter injury/cold injury is described and management provided.

A Community and Local Government Guide to Developing Local Food Systems in North Carolina

By: Rebecca Dunning, Brandon King Local Foods

The impetus to build a more vibrant local food system can come from many sources in the community. Farmers and ranchers, particularly those new to agriculture, are often eager to make more direct sales to restaurants, groceries, and consumers; chefs seek fresh and sustainably raised produce and meats; public health offices seek to increase residents’ consumption of fresh local foods; and tourism and economic development professionals see in local foods a way to revitalize rural communities. In this section we consider some of the means by which collaboration can take place to create local food systems.

Biomass Production of Biofumigant Cover Crops - 'Caliente' Mustard and Oilseed Radish

By: Ryan A. Pekarek, Greg Hoyt, David Monks, Katie Jennings

A new group of cover crops for winter and summer use include mustards, oilseed radishes and turnips. When young, these plants resemble turnip greens, are very succulent and have a low C:N ratio, resulting in rapid decomposition when incorporated into the soil. However, if allowed to mature, bolt and flower, they produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time and become woody, resulting in slower decomposition than when killed at an immature stage.

How to Prune Specific Plants

By: Barbara Fair, Lucy Bradley, Anthony LeBude Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This final publication in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series gives tips for pruning specific plants.

General Pruning Techniques

By: Barbara Fair, Lucy Bradley, Anthony LeBude Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This third in a series on pruning offers general tips on pruning most landscape plants.

Tools to Make the Cut

By: Barbara Fair, Lucy Bradley, Anthony LeBude Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This second in a series on pruning offers tips on selecting the right tool for the job and for evaluating a tool’s quality.

Before the Cut

By: Barbara Fair, Lucy Bradley, Anthony LeBude Pruning Trees & Shrubs

This first of four publications in the Pruning Trees & Shrubs series introduces basic pruning concepts and key terms. Subsequent publications in the series provide more information on woody plant biology, necessary tools and pruning guidelines for general purposes and specific species.

A Step-by-Step Approach to Pruning Carlos Muscadine Grapevines

By: Barclay Poling

This review presents the key steps involved in pruning a mature Carlos vine for maximum production of top-quality fruit.

How to Organize a Community Garden

By: Lucy Bradley, Keith Baldwin

This publication covers the keys to a successful community garden of individual plots including forming a strong planning team, choosing a safe site accessible to the target audience with sunlight and water, organizing a simple transparent system for management and designing and installing the garden. Appendices offer a sample layout, sample by-laws, sample budgets and a list of resources.

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

By: Lucy Bradley, Chris Gunter, Julieta Sherk, Liz Driscoll

In central North Carolina almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully provided you choose appropriate varieties and plant at the right time. This publication covers climate, season and potential pests that all affect the selection of what and when to plant. Also included is a planting chart and calendar.

Ornamental Sweetpotatoes for the Home Landscape

By: Dennis Carey, Brian Whipker, Lucy Bradley, Wayne Buhler

Ornamental sweetpotatoes are extremely heat-tolerant, tropical, perennial vines grown as annuals in North Carolina. They look great covering annual beds, hanging over walls or trailing from containers. This publication covers cultivars, how to select the plants, care through the growing season and pests and diseases.

How to Create a Container Garden for Edibles in the North Carolina Piedmont

By: Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Mark Kistler, Julie Sherk

In this publication you will find ideas to get you started growing your own edibles. Included are simple designs and potential settings for a single container, a small group of containers and a larger grouping of containers. The benefits and challenges of various planting options will also be explored.

Producing Shiitake Mushrooms: A Guide for Small-Scale Outdoor Cultivation on Logs

By: Jeanine Davis, Jean Harrison

This guide provides techniques for small-scale outdoor cultivation of shiitake mushrooms on logs. Tree selection and log preparation, spawn selection, inoculation, fruiting, pest and disease management and harvesting are covered.

Container Garden Planting Calendar for Edibles in the Piedmont

By: Kim Richter, Lucy Bradley, Mark Kistler, Julie Sherk

This publication offers a guide to growing edible plants year-round in containers. Includes planting and harvest guides.

Herbicide Carryover in Hay, Manure, Compost, and Grass Clippings

By: Jeanine Davis, Sue Ellen Johnson, Katie Jennings

Many farmers and home gardeners have reported damage to vegetable and flower crops after applying horse or livestock manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings to the soil. The symptoms reported include poor seed germination; death of young plants; twisted, cupped, and elongated leaves; misshapen fruit; and reduced yields. These symptoms can be caused by other factors, including diseases, insects, and herbicide drift. Another possibility for the source of these crop injuries should also be considered: the presence of certain herbicides in the manure, compost, hay, or grass clippings applied to the soil.

Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Ginseng is most commonly propagated by seed. The seeds require special handling because, to germinate, they must first be subjected to a long period of storage in a moist medium with a warm/cold treatment; a process known as stratification. Because of this requirement, ginseng seed normally does not germinate until the second spring following harvest of berries in the fall. Commercial seed suppliers store seed for a year and then market it in the fall as stratified seed.

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Licensing

By:

To apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must be certified or be supervised by someone who is certified. Anyone who accepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else's property must be licensed. This fact sheet covers certification and licensing for private and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.

Specialty Crops in North Carolina: Acreage and Distribution

By: Roger Batts, Jeanine Davis, Gina Fernandez, Chris Gunter, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Jonathan Schultheis, Sara Spayd

With the increasing diversity of North Carolina agriculture, it is important to document and assess the presence of the commodities produced in the state. Crop data are publicly maintained on only the top 20 or so specialty crops, yet state and federal decisions impact hundreds of individual crop species. Because little information is available for most specialty crops, it must be gleaned from many different sources.

Blackberries for the Home Garden

By: Gina Fernandez

This publication is a home gardener's guide to planting, maintaining and harvesting blackberries.

Coping With Drought: A Guide To Understanding Plant Response to Drought

By: Barbara Fair

This publication describes how water stress affects plants and ways that plants adapt to drought. It includes some suggestions for drought-resistant plants.

The Pour-Through Extraction Procedure: A Nutrient Management Tool for Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

By routinely measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) and pH of growing media and irrigation water for container-grown nursery crops, growers can monitor nutrient availability and scout for problems. Learn how to use the pour-through extraction procedures as part of your nursery's quality control program.

Commercial Luffa Sponge Gourd Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Luffa sponge products are readily available in the cosmetic and bath section of department stores, discount stores, pharmacies, and specialty shops. The popularity of luffa for personal hygiene products is due to the gentle exfoliating effect the fibers have on the skin. Many environmentally conscious consumers appreciate that luffa products are biodegradable, natural, and a renewable resource. In many other countries luffa is also used to make household cleaning products for scrubbing pots, pans, barbecue grills, tires, and many other surfaces that are not harmed by the abrasive fibers. The tough fibers can also be processed into industrial products such as filters, insulation, and packing materials. Craft shows often exhibit dolls, hats, toys, and other decorative items made from luffa sponges.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

With training and pruning, fruit trees will develop the proper shape and form to yield high-quality fruit sooner and will live longer. Learn how to train your trees for productivity and prune to remove dead, diseased or broken limbs. This publication includes descriptions of dormant pruning, summer pruning, types of pruning cuts and different training systems.

2008 Southeast Regional Bramble Production Guide

By: Gina Fernandez, Gerard Krewer

This online guide for blackberry and raspberry growers in the Southeast provides information on bramble cultivars, growth and production practices. Topics covered include recommended cultivars, site selection and preparation, plant establishment, trellis systems, fertility management, harvesting and post-harvest management.

Weed Management in Broccoli, Cabbage, and Cauliflower

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Keeping weeds out early in the season is very important for cole crops that are marketed by size. Learn how to use both cultivation and herbicides to achieve good early-season weed control and avoid losses in yield and profits.

Weed Management in Collards, Kale, Mustard, and Turnip Greens

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Cool-season leafy greens face a different weed spectrum than warm-season crops. The presence of weeds in harvested greens can result in lower prices or rejection at market. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to avoid weed competition and contamination.

Weed Management in Lettuce

By: David Monks, Wayne Mitchem, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Weed competition in lettuce reduces both yield and head quality. This cool-season crop faces competition from winter annuals as well as early summer weeds. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options that growers can use to control weeds in lettuce, including advice for lettuce grown with plastic mulch.

Weed Management in Okra

By: Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Roger Batts, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Being related to cotton, okra can be a poor competitor with weeds, particularly early in the growing season. As the crop is harvested, more sunlight can reach the soil and increase late-season weed interference. Learn about the cultivation options and herbicides that growers can use for weed control in okra.

Weed Management in Onions

By: Roger Batts, Wayne Mitchem, David Monks, Katie Jennings Weed Management in North Carolina

Most commercial onions produced in North Carolina are seeded in the fall and harvested in mid- to late-June. Weed competition can reduce onion yields up to 96 percent, and weeds must be controlled throughout the growing season. Learn about the cultivation and herbicide options growers can use to keep onions weed-free in both wide and narrow rows.

Field Production of Nursery Stock: Field Preparation, Planting and Planting Density

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Field preparation using low-till practices, cover crops and soil amendments improves quality of both soils and ornamentals plants during production. Correct planting techniques and useful planting density scenarios are suggested. Guidelines for pruning during production are given so growers can create a niche by improving plant quality during field production of nursery stock.

Managing Drought on Nursery Crops

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback

Drought has always caused nursery crop producers great concern. If irrigation water becomes limiting, growers producing nursery crops in containers may lose their entire crop. Newly planted field-grown crops also sustain heavy losses if they are not irrigated frequently during the first year of production. Although established field-grown nursery stock will survive if not irrigated during periods of drought, they will not grow under these conditions. Adequate moisture during field production will produce field-grown shade trees of marketable size in three to five years. Poorly irrigated plants will take longer to reach marketable size, thus lengthening the time cost of production.

Weed Management in Annual Color Beds

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflet

Establishing and maintaining quality annual color beds requires a plan to prevent and control weeds. Weeds compete with ornamental plants for water, light, and nutrients reducing aesthetic quality and plant growth. To minimize these problems, a weed management program should be developed and implemented prior to planting.

Chapter 1. Introduction

By: Barclay Poling The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

New and current grape growers will find practical information on site appraisal, establishment, and operation of commercial winegrape vineyards in the North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide. This publication focuses on production of vinifera and hybrid wine grapes.

Chapter 2. Cost and Investment Analysis of Chardonnay (Vitis Vinifera) Winegrapes in North Carolina

By: Charles Safley, Carlos Carpio, Barclay Poling The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Growing Chardonnay grapes, the number one vinifera variety grown in North Carolina, can be a profitable venture in certain areas of the state.The profitability analysis in this chapter, based on 2005 costs, shows that it will take an estimated $12,876 per acre to bring a vineyard up to full production in the fourth year.The vineyard would begin to yield $1,097 per acre in the eighth year, and the producer may be able to break even by the eighth year.

Chapter 3. Choice of Varieties

By: Andy Allen, Barclay Poling, Amy-Lynn Albertson The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

North Carolina has one of the most varied climates of any eastern state, and a diverse number of grape species and varieties can be grown. But to be a successful commercial winegrape grower, it is critical that you select varieties that grow well in your region and that have an established market.

Chapter 4. Vineyard Site Selection

By: Barclay Poling, Ryan Boyles, Carlos Carpio The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Grapes grown in North Carolina are sometimes exposed to unfavorable climatic conditions and biological pests that can reduce crops and injure or kill grapevines. Climatic threats include low winter temperatures, late spring frosts, excessive summer heat, and unpredictable precipitation. Biological pests include fungal pathogens and insects that attack the foliage and fruit of vines, as well as birds, deer, and other wildlife that consume fruit and shoots.Vineyard site selection greatly affects both the frequency and severity of these problems and is one of the most important factors affecting profitability in viticulture.

Chapter 5. Vineyard Establishment

By: Tony Wolf The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Vineyard establishment involves careful planning, thorough site preparation, vineyard design, planting, and trellis construction. Unlike dormant pruning or other annual activities, designing and establishing a vineyard must be done correctly the first time. In addition, the process must be tailored to the particular site and the grower’s intentions. This chapter discusses the basic steps in establishing a vineyard and offers suggestions for practical methods and materials.There are many alternatives. Although this chapter may be used as the sole source of information for vineyard establishment, it is advisable to obtain and compare information from additional sources before beginning. References provided here include more detailed information on particular aspects of vineyard establishment, such as trellis construction. It is also helpful to visit existing vineyards to examine their design, compare trellising materials, and discuss plant and row spacing.

Chapter 6. Pruning and Training

By: Tony Wolf The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

This chapter discusses the principles of grapevine dormant pruning, reviews reasons for vine training, and describes systems appropriate for use in North Carolina. Profitable grape production requires that grapevines be managed so that a large area of healthy leaves is exposed to sunlight. Such vines are likely to produce large crops of high-quality fruit each year. Grapevines must be trained and pruned annually to achieve this goal. The training system chosen generally dictates how the vines are pruned. Thus, pruning practices and training systems are discussed together in this chapter.

Chapter 7. Canopy Management

By: Tony Wolf The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

High-quality wines — those that command premium prices — can be produced only from high-quality grapes. Grape quality can be defined in various ways, but ripeness and freedom from rots are two of the chief qualities. Producing ripe fruit with minimum rot and maximum varietal character is not easy in North Carolina. As described elsewhere in this publication, the combination of climate, soils, and vine vigor often leads to excessive vegetative growth. For reasons that will be discussed, luxurious vegetative growth can reduce vine fruitfulness, decrease varietal character, degrade other components of fruit quality, and hamper efforts at disease control. Canopy management practices can help alleviate these problems.

Chapter 8. Pest Management

By: Turner Sutton, Jean Harrison, Wayne Mitchem The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Grapes are subject to attack by many different pests, including nematodes, fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens, insects, and wildlife, such as deer and birds.Weeds, which compete with the vines for soil moisture and nutrients, may also be included in this list. Recognizing and understanding the nature of these pests is essential to minimizing crop losses.This chapter briefly describes the major pests that routinely threaten bunch grapes in North Carolina and discusses control measures.

Chapter 9. Vine Nutrition

By: Tony Wolf The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Grapevines require 16 essential nutrients for normal growth and development (Table 9.1). Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained as the roots take in water and as the leaves absorb gases. The remaining nutrients are obtained primarily from the soil. Macronutrients are those used in relatively large quantities by vines; natural macronutrients are often supplemented with applied fertilizers.The micronutrients, although no less essential, are needed in very small quantities. When one or more of these elements is deficient, vines may exhibit foliar deficiency symptoms, reduced growth or crop yield, and greater susceptiblity to winter injury or death. The availability of essential nutrients is therefore critical for optimum vine performance and profitable grape production.

Chapter 10. Grapevine Water Relations and Vineyard Irrigation

By: Tony Wolf The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Like other perennial plants, mature grapevines have extensive root systems and therefore, unlike shallow-rooted annual plants, they are fairly tolerant of mild droughts. Nevertheless, a certain amount of moisture is necessary to support growth and development. Lacking sufficient moisture, vines will suffer water stress, which can reduce productivity as well as fruit quality. Supplemental moisture can be provided by permanent (solid-set) or temporary irrigation systems. Drip irrigation has become the standard water delivery system for North Carolina vineyards in recent years. Drip irrigation can represent a substantial investment (see chapter 2 for details), but the benefits can far outweigh the costs in many vineyards. In 2005, it was estimated that drip irrigation would cost $22,743 to purchase and install the equipment required for a 10-acre drip system, or $2,274 per acre. Drip irrigation can be as effective on steep slopes as on rolling and flat surfaces.

Chapter 11. Spring Frost Control

By: Barclay Poling The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

To grow more consistent crops and improve your cash flow in years with damaging frost events, this chapter will show you how you can: 1) identify an active protection system to protect your vineyard during budbreak and early shoot development, 2) use the basic principles of frost and frost/freeze protection to deal with complex cold protection scenarios, so that you use your active protection system(s) efficiently, and 3) operate the equipment correctly.

Chapter 12. Crop Prediction

By: Tony Wolf The North Carolina Winegrape Grower’s Guide

Crop prediction or estimation is the process of projecting as accurately as possible the quantity of crop that will be harvested. Why estimate the crop? The most obvious reason is to know how much crop will be present for sale or utilization. Beyond that fundamental reason, it is also important to know whether vines are undercropped or overcropped. In the absence of methodical crop estimations, the experienced grower can rely on past vineyard performance.This approach is subject to error, however, especially in grape regions subject to spring frosts or winter injury, which can greatly affect a vineyard’s productivity from year to year.

Sources of Shiitake Spawn

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication lists sources of shiitake mushroom spawns for cultivation.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflet

Bloodroot is a member of the Papaveraceae family. It is a native spring wildflower that grows in rich woodlands of North America from Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Alabama, Arkansas, Nebraska, and Manitoba. It can grow in full sun, but is more often found in semi-shaded, light-wooded areas with moist, acidic soil. The root, consisting of a thickened rhizome covered with fibrous roots, is known for its reddish-orange color. This publication discusses growing and harvesting bloodroot in North Carolina for specialty markets.

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield, Karin Cousineau Horticulture Information Leaflet

Black cohosh is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is a native medicinal plant found in rich woodlands from as far north as Maine and Ontario, south to Georgia, and west to Missouri and Indiana. In North Carolina it can be found at elevations up to 4,000 feet and is most common in the western part of the state. It is an herbaceous perennial reaching a mature height of over four ft tall and can grow 18 to 22 inches per month during the growing season.

Muscadine Grapes in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Connie Fisk Horticulture Information Leaflet

Muscadine grapes are well adapted to the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, where temperatures seldom fall below 10°F. Considerable injury generally occurs where winter temperatures drop below 0°F. Some of the more hardy cultivars such as 'Magnolia', 'Carlos' and 'Sterling' survive northward to Virginia and westward to the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Muscadines have a high degree of tolerance to pests and diseases that makes the production of bunch grapes nearly impossible in eastern North Carolina. There is no other fruit with such strong personal associations for so many native North Carolinians. The fruit has a distinct fruity or "musky" aroma, while the juice by itself is sweet with a light taste and aroma. The fruit is very popular with native Southerners for making into wine, pies and jellies.

Sources of Goldenseal Seeds, Plants or Roots

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication offers a list of companies and nurseries that carry goldenseal seeds or plants for cultivation.

Organic Sweet Corn Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

In most of the south, sweet corn can be produced from early spring until fall. However, sweet corn does have some specific environmental and cultural needs that must be met for the plant to produce high-marketable yields. Corn is a warm-season crop that requires high temperatures for optimum germination and rapid growth. In general, sweet corn does not tolerate cold weather, and frost will injure sweet corn at any stage of growth. Other stressful climatic conditions, such as drought or flooding, can reduce yields and cause small, deformed ears.

Pole Bean Production

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Pole beans are grown commercially in the mountain counties and, on a limited scale, in a few of the eastern counties. They are produced in home gardens throughout the state. Pole beans are grown for their distinctive flavor, long pods, high yield, long harvesting season, and high price.

Summer Squash Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Summer squash are grown throughout North Carolina in both the spring and fall. A major portion of the state's production is located in Sampson and Henderson counties and adjoining areas. Summer squash are harvested as immature fruit, have soft skin, and are very perishable (1- to 2-week shelf life).

Orchard Floor Management in Pecans

By: Michael Parker, Wayne Mitchem Horticulture Information Leaflet

The objective of this leaflet is to discuss orchard floor management options in pecan orchards, along with herbicide considerations, and potential herbicides. It should be used as a guide for producers making orchard floor management decisions.

A Gardener's Guide to Soil Testing

By: Ervin Evans, Deanna Osmond

This publication tells gardeners why they should test their soil, how to obtain a soil test and interpret the results and how to use the soil test to improve their soils.

Pecans

By: Michael Parker, Wayne Mitchem, Kenneth Sorensen, Bill Bunn, Stephen Toth Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

How to manage pesticides to control insects, diseases, weeds and other crop pests of pecans in North Carolina are covered in detail.

Deer Problems in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Deer are among the most beautiful and graceful but troublesome wildlife in North Carolina. Over the past 10 to 15 years, damage to ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries, by white-tailed deer has increased dramatically in all 100 counties. This situation has become a problem due to the increase in the size of the deer population in North Carolina and to the urbanization of rural areas. Conflicts between deer and landscaped spaces are expected to increase, as more rural areas will be developed.

Community Supported Agriculture In North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis, Melissa Ann Brown Horticulture Information Leaflet

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is a form of direct marketing in which a community of individuals pledges to support a farm. At the beginning of the growing season, CSA members pay for a subscription to the CSA. In return, farmers provide the members with a weekly share of the harvest. Both growers and consumers have found this relationship to be mutually beneficial. Members receive a variety of fresh, local produce and have the satisfaction of knowing where their food comes from and how it is produced. Farmers, in turn, benefit by receiving funds upfront to buy seeds and inputs. They also are relieved of most of the task of marketing by having a guaranteed market and price for what they will produce.

Seed and Plant Sources for Medicinal Herbs and Botanicals

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication lists some of the companies that supply medicinal herbs and botanicals by mail order in the United States.

Suppliers of Culinary and Ornamental Herb Seeds and/or Plants

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication lists some of the companies that supply herb seeds and/or plants by mail order in the United States.

Japanese Stiltgrass Identification and Management

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflet

Japanese stiltgrass (also known as annual jewgrass, bamboograss, flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Mary?s grass, microstegium, Nepal microstegium, or Vietnamese grass) is a summer annual commonly found in shady, moist areas and is spreading rapidly in woodlands as well as shaded landscapes and low-maintenance turf throughout the southeastern U.S. and mid- Atlantic states. Japanese stiltgrass germinates in early spring, several weeks before crabgrass, yet flowers and seeds much later, from mid- September through October. It has broader, shorter leaves than many other annual grasses; somewhat resembling broadleaf signalgrass or spreading dayflower. After frost, the foliage and wiry stems turn a distinctive light tan in color and persist through the winter. Vegetative identification characteristics include: rolled vernation, a very short membranous ligule, and leaf blades that are shorter and broader than most other grasses.

Cultivation of Ramps (Allium tricoccum and A. burdickii)

By: Jeanine Davis, Jackie Greenfield Horticulture Information Leaflet

Ramps, also known as wild leeks, are native to the eastern North American mountains. They can be found growing in patches in rich, moist, deciduous forests and bottoms from as far north as Canada, west to Missouri and Minnesota, and south to North Carolina and Tennessee. In early spring, ramps send up smooth, broad, lily-of-the-valley-like leaves that disappear by summer before the white flowers appear. The bulbs have the pleasant taste of sweet spring onions with a strong garlic-like aroma.

Home Garden - Asparagus Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Asparagus has been considered a garden delicacy since Roman times. Any home gardener can grow and enjoy this spring vegetable. Asparagus is a perennial. If you plant and manage properly it will produce for 15 years or more. Since this crop will occupy the land for many years you should start the asparagus bed properly -- location, soil type, soil fertility, size and age of crowns and correct planting are important.

Home Garden - Beet Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Beets have been cultivated for centuries. Though mostly grown for the roots, beet greens are also popular in many areas. A they are a common item vegetable gardens, few commercial beets are produced in North Carolina. Table beets obtain their best color and quality when grown in a cool climate. In North Carolina, they are best grown as a spring or fall crop. The plants can stand some mild freezing, but the roots must be removed from the ground in the fall before a hard freeze.

Home Garden Cabbage Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Cabbage is grown commercially in eastern North Carolina as both a spring and fall crop, and in the mountains as an early summer and fall crop. Cabbage acreage in North Carolina averages 10,000 to 12,000 acres. The biggest problem in growing this crop is insect control.

Home Garden - Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Head lettuce is the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 lb annually. Lettuce is adapted to cool growing conditions with the optimum temperatures for growth of 60 to 650F. At 70 to 800F the plants flower and produce seed. Lettuce can tolerate a few days of temperatures from 80 to 850F provided nights are cool.

Home Garden - Upland Cress

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

There are many names for upland and other kinds of cresses, which can cause confusion in identification. Upland cress should not be confused with water cress or with pepper grass (Lepidium nativum) which is also called garden cress or land cress. In parts of North Carolina where upland cress and a similar variety grows as weeds, they are sometimes called creasy salad, creasy greens or highland creasy. Because of the confusion in the names of cresses, when ordering upland cress, the grower should include the scientific name, which is Barbarea verna. Example: upland cress (Barbarea verna).

Home Garden - Spinach

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Spinach is a cool-season crop and belongs to the goose family (Chenopodiaceae) as do beets and Swiss chard. This crop is becoming more popular as evidenced by increases in consumption of both fresh (salads) and processed spinach. It is high in vitamins and minerals. Spinach reaches edible maturity quickly (37 to 45 days) and thrives best during the cool, moist seasons of the year. During periods of warm weather and long days, spinach will produce seed. This cold-hardy crop can withstand hard frosts with accompanying temperatures as low as 20 0F. Spinach can be overwintered for early spring production in many areas of the state.

Home Garden - Green Bunch Onions

Horticulture Information Leaflet

When onions are harvested in the green or immature stage they are called "green bunch onions." These onions are sold in bunches tied with a rubber band. This is a popular crop for home and market gardeners in the fall, winter and early spring. Acreages are usually small because of the amount of hand labor required for planting and preparation for market.

Home Garden - Okra

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Okra is grown throughout North Carolina in home gardens and for commercial markets. It is a warm season crop that belongs to the cotton (Mallow) family and should not be planted until the soil has thoroughly warmed in the spring. Okra is referred to as 'Gumbo' in some areas.

Home Garden - Southern Peas

Horticulture Information Leaflet

Southern peas originated in India in prehistoric times, were then brought to Africa, and finally were brought to America. In India, Southern peas are known by 50 common names and in the United States are called "field peas," "crowder peas," "cowpeas," and "blackeyes" but "Southern peas" is the preferred name.

Home Garden - Pepper Production (Bell, Small Fruit and Pimento)

By: Douglas Sanders, Charles Averre, Kenneth Sorensen Horticulture Information Leaflet

By following the steps listed below you will be able to produce earlier peppers with higher yields and better quality.

Turnips and Rutabagas

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Turnips and rutabagas are among the most commonly grown and widely adapted root crops. They are members of the Cruciferae or mustard family and belong to the genus Brassica. The two are similar in plant size and general characteristics. Turnip leaves are usually light green, thin and hairy, while the rutabagas are bluish-green, thick and smooth. The roots of turnips generally have little or no neck and a distinct taproot, while rutabaga roots are often more elongated and have a thick, leafy neck and roots originating from the underside of the edible root as well as from the taproot.

Celery

By: William McCarth, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet covers celery, whic could be a very profitable crop in North Carolina. A harvest period in late June or early July, and one in October, would fill market voids when other major celery producing areas are not harvesting. Celery, however, is not an easy crop to grow. Although it is a cool season crop, exposure of juvenile plants to temperatures below 40 to 50ºF for more than 5 to 10 days can cause premature bolting, making the crop unsalable. Special attention must be given to maintaining a steady water supply and providing the proper amount of nutrients to allow for constant growth.

Fresh Market Tomato Production Piedmont and Coastal Plain of North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The tomato is a warm season crop. With special production practices you can produce your first tomatoes in 60 days. This crop can be grown for production from June through November by choosing the right varieties and production practices. Generally, tomatoes require a large investment in time and labor, but increase in intensity of management is repaid by increased yields and profits.

Tomatoes for Processing in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The per-capita consumption of processed tomatoes has increased steadily in recent years. This has been due to changes in eating habits and development of new and better products. Over 8 million tons of processed tomatoes are produced in the United States annually. Average yields for the United States are 25 tons per acre while the range is 9 to 40 tons per acre. North Carolina growers can produce high yields of processing tomatoes. Satisfactory color, pH, sugar and acid content needed to produce a fine quality canned product can be attained if tomatoes are grown according to recommended practices.

Using Plastic Mulches and Drip Irrigation for Vegetables

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Muskmelons, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, squash, eggplant, watermelons and okra are vegetable crops that have shown significant increases in earliness, yield, and fruit quality when grown on plastic mulch. Some less valuable crops such as sweet corn, snap beans, southern peas and pumpkins have shown similar responses. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of using plastic mulches are outlined in this publication.

Drip or Trickle Irrigation Systems: An Outline of Components

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This checklist is provided to help growers recognize components of a drip or trickle irrigation system and to assist in planning and installing such a system. A grower should always consult an irrigation specialist or irrigation company that designs and installs drip or trickle systems to ensure the system is properly engineered and designed for his water source and field topography.

Drip or Trickle Irrigation Systems: An Operations and Troubleshooting Checklist

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This leaflet is intended to assist growers in troubleshooting drip or trickle irrigation systems. For major problems consult an irrigation specialist or irrigation company that designs and installs drip or trickle irrigation systems.

Vegetable Crop Irrigation

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Vegetables are 80 to 95 percent water. Because they contain so much water, their yield and quality suffer very quickly from drought. When vegetables are sold, a "sack of water" with a small amount of flavoring and some vitamins is being sold. Thus, for good yields and high quality, irrigation is essential to the production of most vegetables. If water shortages occur early in the crop's development, maturity may be delayed and yields are often reduced. If a moisture shortage occurs later in the growing season, quality is often reduced even though total yields are not affected.

Asparagus Crown Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Producing asparagus crowns for sale or use is simple and profitable. Careful attention to details described here is important so that all requirements for certified plant production can be met. Certified plants are most saleable and bring a premium price. One-year-old crowns will produce a healthy asparagus planting.

Beets

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Beets have been cultivated for centuries. Though grown mostly for the roots, beet greens are also popular in many areas. Beets are a common item in vegetable gardens, but few are produced in North Carolina. This publication covers how to grow and harvest beets.

Broccoli Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Broccoli is a cool-season crop, closely related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard. It can be grown as either a spring or a fall crop. Broccoli is a high-quality vegetable for fresh use and is one of the more popular frozen vegetables. This publication covers growing and harvesting this highly nutritious vegetable.

Broccoli Raab

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Broccoli-raab (also known as rapa, rapine, rappone, fall and spring raab or turnip broccoli) is a rapidly growing annual when grown in spring, but a biennial in fall plantings. The leaves with the seed-stalks, before blooming, are cut for greens and are sold to ethnic markets (primarily Italian).

Brussels Sprouts

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication discusses the Brussels sprout, a cool season crop, belonging to the cabbage family, and closely related to cauliflower, broccoli, kale, collards, etc. Like cauliflower, it thrives best in a cool humid climate, thus commercial production of this crop is concentrated in the "fog-belt" of California with limited production in the Long Island, New York area. The edible portion of this crop is the "bud" or small cabbage-like head which grows in the axils of each leaf. Occasionally the tops are used as greens.

Cabbage

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Cabbage is grown commercially in eastern North Carolina as both a spring and fall crop, and in the mountains as an early summer and fall crop. Cabbage acreage in North Carolina averages 10,000 to 12,000 acres. The biggest problem in growing this crop is insect control.

Cauliflower

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Cauliflower is a cool season crop, closely related to broccoli, cabbage, kale, turnips and mustard. It is more exacting in its climatic requirements than most other crops in this family. It grows best in a comparatively cool temperature with a moist atmosphere. With proper management cauliflower can be grown in North Carolina as either a spring or fall crop, although the fall crop will generally produce better quality.

Lettuce

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication discusses growing and harvesting head lettuce, the most important salad vegetable grown in the United States. Per-capita consumption exceeds 25 pounds annually. In North Carolina, the crop can be grown as both a spring and fall crop in eastern North Carolina and even during midsummer in western North Carolina at elevations over 3,000 feet.

Collard Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The collard is a cool season crop that should be grown during early spring or fall. The mature plant will withstand frosts and light to medium freezes. It is one of the most popular garden vegetables in the south and is rapidly becoming a delicacy in northern states as well.

Trellised Cucumbers

By: Jeanine Davis, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Fresh market (slicer) cucumbers have been produced commercially in North Carolina for many years. The average yield from commercial fields has been 850 to 950 bushels per acre or 2 to 3 times the average yield from non-trellised fields. This publication covers growing and harvesting fresh market cucumbers.

Eggplant

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication covers growing and harvesting eggplant in North Carolina. Eggplant is a warm season plant that is very susceptible to frost. It requires a relatively long growing season to produce profitable yields. Growth is checked by cool weather. Proper cultural practices can yield 500 bushels per acre.

Greens

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Leafy greens, such as turnips, mustard, collards, kale, and spinach are cool season crops. They should be grown during early spring or fall for maximum yields and quality, but this season can be extended if markets warrant. Kale and spinach can withstand temperature into the upper teens and are often harvested through winter in the east. The other greens may withstand medium frosts.

Upland Cress

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet offers information on growing and harvesting upland cress, a green often eaten like spinach or kale; however, in some areas, it is frequently eaten raw as a salad or garnish.

Spinach

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Spinach is a cool-season crop and belongs to the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) as do beets and Swiss chard. This crop is becoming more popular as evidenced by increases in consumption of both fresh (salads) and processed spinach. Spinach reaches edible maturity quickly (37 to 45 days) and thrives best during the cool, moist seasons of the year.

Green Bunch Onions

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

When onions are harvested in the green or immature stage they are called "green bunch onions." These onions are sold in bunches tied with a rubber band. This is a popular crop for home and market gardeners in the fall, winter and early spring. Acreages are usually small because of the amount of hand labor required for planting and preparation for market.

Okra

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Okra is grown throughout North Carolina in home gardens and for commercial markets. It is a warm season crop that belongs to the cotton (Mallow) family and should not be planted until the soil has thoroughly warmed in the spring. Okra is referred to as 'Gumbo' in some areas.

Commercial Asparagus Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Asparagus has been grown for many years. The Ancient Greeks and Romans relished this crop. It originated in Asia Minor and is a member of the lily family. California, Michigan, and Washington are the major producing states, but there is some commercial production in many of the northern and western states. Warm regions such as Northern Mexico and Southern California also grow it. This publication covers recent research that has shown that asparagus can be grown at a profit in North Carolina.

Greenhouse Vegetable List of References

By: Mary Peet Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet offers a list of materials available from libraries, publishers, institutions or on the web regarding growing greenhouse vegetables. Superscripts indicate a source for ordering from the address list at the end of the publication.

Using The PourThru Procedure For Checking EC and pH For Nursery Crops

By: Ted Bilderback Horticulture Information Leaflet

Every nursery needs to have someone who routinely checks Electrical Conductivity (EC) also called soluble salts, and pH of container crops, potting inventories and irrigation water. Checking EC and pH should be considered part of the quality control and scouting program in the nursery. Results from testing 3 to 5 containers in a irrigation zone each week can be used to schedule irrigation the following week. Comparing leachate solution collected from containers to water collected from irrigation nozzles provides a good insight into nutrient levels in the containers. Checking EC and pH of nursery crops grown in containers doesn't have to be time consuming, complicated or difficult. The intention of this article is to review the procedure and update growers on the Virginia Tech Extraction Method (VTEM), also called the PourThru extraction procedure.

A Gardener's Guide to Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans

This publication provides basic information on the nutrient needs of trees and shrubs, types of fertilizers to apply and recommended methods and times of application.

Mulching Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Mulching trees and shrubs is a good method to reduce landscape maintenance and keep plants healthy. Mulch helps conserve moisture -- 10 to 25 percent reduction in soil moisture loss from evaporation. Mulches help keep the soil well aerated by reducing soil compaction that results when raindrops hit the soil. They also reduce water runoff and soil erosion. Mulches prevent soil and possible fungi from splashing on the foliage -- thus reducing the likelihood of soil-borne diseases. They help maintain a more uniform soil temperature (warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer) and promote the growth of soil microorganisms and earth worms.

Commercial Goldenseal Cultivation

By: Jeanine Davis, Joe-Ann McCoy Horticulture Information Leaflet

Goldenseal is a highly valued medicinal herb which has been collected from the forests in North America for hundreds of years. The historical range for goldenseal in the United States was very broad, ranging from as far north as Vermont and Wisconsin, south to Alabama and Georgia, and west to Kansas. It can still be found growing in patches in moist, rich, hardwood forests in much of this area. This factsheet covers commercial goldenseal production in North Carolina.

Home Garden - Collards

By: Doug Sanders, Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

The collard is a cool-season crop that should be grown during early spring or fall. The mature plant will withstand frosts and light to medium freezes. It is one of the most popular garden vegetables in the south and is rapidly becoming a delicacy in northern states as well. Collards provide a good source of vitamins and minerals.

Home Garden - Bulb Onion Production in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The onion is a cool-season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available.

Fresh Market Production Cucumbers

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

The slicing cucumber is an important crop to North Carolina, with yearly production fluctuating between 5,000 to 8,000 acres, depending on season and market conditions. North Carolina slicing production accounts for approximately 10% of the U.S. production acreage.

Recommended Trees for Urban Landscapes: Proven Performers for Difficult Sites

By: Thomas Ranney, Richard Bir, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

The following list of recommended trees includes a variety of plants that have demonstrated particular resistance to harsh growing conditions, diseases, and insects in North Carolina. It should be emphasized, however, that even these trees have their limits. No single species is suited for all sites and consideration should be given to soil conditions, local occurrence of diseases and insects, microclimate, hardiness zone, and mature tree size when selecting any plant. Site preparation can also be extremely important in determining the success of any landscape planting. Every effort should be made to provide for adequate moisture, drainage, and rooting space on all sites. If trees are to be planted under utility lines, special consideration should be given to species and cultivars with mature heights less than the existing overhead clearance. Maintaining a good diversity of species in any landscape planting will help insure that insects, diseases, and changing environmental conditions will not, at some point, result in widespread problems.

Growing Peaches in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker

This publication covers site selection, variety selection, weed control, pruning, diseases and insects and harvesting for peach growers in North Carolina.

Growing Pecans in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker, Kenneth Sorensen

This publication explains how to start and maintain a successful pecan orchard on a large or small scale.

Preparing Nursery Plants for Winter

By: Anthony LeBude, Ted Bilderback, Helen Kraus

This publication for nursery managers and homeowners describes how to protect nursery plants and keep them healthy through the winter.

Commercial Production of Pickling and Slicing Cucumbers in North Carolina

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Charles Averre, Mike Boyette, Ed Estes, Gerald Holmes, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen

This comprehensive factsheet for farmers describes recommended practices for producing pickling and slicing cucumbers.

A Gardener's Guide to Protecting Water Quality

By: Ervin Evans, Deanna Osmond

This publication discusses ways that gardeners can protect water quality and avoid runoff and soil erosion.

Bed Preparation and Fertilization Recommendations for Bedding Plants in the Landscape

By: Bill Fonteno, Douglas Bailey, Stuart Warren Horticulture Information Leaflet

For healthy, aesthetic plants, the soil must serve as a reservoir for water, oxygen, and nutrients. While this sounds very straightforward, providing these three essentials can be quite challenging. This leaflet describes the steps to take to ensure these essentials are met in the proper amounts.

Selection and Use of Stress-Tolerant Bedding Plants for the Landscape

By: Douglas Bailey Horticulture Information Leaflet

Each of us are subjected to stresses and pressures every day in our home, work, and living environment; plants are no different. Unfortunately, there is no "stressless" environment, and there is no totally stress-resistant bedding plant. Each site has its stress level and each plant has its tolerance level. There are steps that can be taken to reduce or avoid stress in the landscape. However, no program can prevent all problems, and the key to successful landscape color using bedding plants is to match the particular site with specific plant species.

Installation and Maintenance of Landscape Bedding Plants

By: Douglas Bailey, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Use of bedding plant color beds continues to increase. A recent indicates that over 15% of the flowering bedding plants produced in this country are utilized by commercial landscapers. However, success with color beds requires planning, proper bed preparation, and an intensive maintenance program--all of which are outlined in this publication.

Under-Utilized Bedding Plants for the North Carolina Landscape

By: Douglas Bailey Horticulture Information Leaflet

There are a number of popular bedding plants used in the landscape today; some deserving the attention they get, others not-so-deserving. This publication offers a chart with some under-utilized bedding plants in North Carolina, including characteristics such as temperature and light preferences.

Indoor Plant Selection and Care

By: Douglas Bailey Horticulture Information Leaflet

Almost any indoor environment is more pleasant and attractive when living plants are a part of the setting. In apartments, condominiums and single family residences, plants add warmth, personality and year-round beauty. Shopping centers, hotels and resorts take full advantage of the colorful, relaxed atmosphere created by green and flowering plants. Offices, banks and other commercial buildings rely on interior plants to "humanize" the work environment and increase productivity.

Success with Ornamental Vegetables as Floricultural Crops

By: Brian Whipker, James Gibson, Raymond Cloyd, Ron Jones Horticulture Information Leaflet

Ornamental cabbage and kale have been the traditional ornamental vegetables for providing colorful and attractive foliage during the fall and winter months. Recently leafy vegetables, in particular oriental mustards, have become popular for landscape plantings during the cool season. Leafy vegetables which have been popular in salads and stir-fry dishes are now being adopted by curators of botanical gardens and landscape contractors as specimen plants, border plants, and in mass plantings. Planted with pansies and garden mums, these vegetables offer a change of texture and foliar color.

Consumer Care of Poinsettias

By: Ervin Evans, James Gibson, Brian Whipker Horticulture Information Leaflet

Poinsettias are the traditional Christmas plant because of their colorful bracts. The bracts are actually modified leaves and the yellow cyathia in the center of the bracts are the true flowers. Plant breeders have introduced many new cultivars over the past few years and there are over 100 cultivars currently available. The array of colors range from red, pink, white, salmon, to bicolors. With these new, longer lasting cultivars being available, it is possible for a properly cared for poinsettia to remain beautiful in the home for 2 to 3 months.

Summer and Fall Flowering Bulbs for the Landscape

By: August De Hertogh, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Summer and fall flowering bulbs provide another dimension to gardening. They add beauty and interest to the landscape and, since most of them are tender, they offer a unique challenge to the gardener. There are a large number of different types of bulbs, offering variations in forms, fragrances, colors, and lasting brilliance which many summer annuals cannot achieve.

Home Forcing of Hyacinths

By: Gwendolyn Pemberton Horticulture Information Leaflet

Causing spring-flowering bulbs like hyacinths to flower by other than naturally occurring conditions is called forcing. This practice is carried out world-wide by commercial flower growers. With planning and effort, any homeowner can have a steady supply of bulb flowers from late December through April. Forcing bulbs is a rewarding challenge to those interested in the growth and development of plants.

Growing Vegetable Transplants for the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

The growing media chosen to grow vegetable transplants should be sterilized to prevent seedlings from being killed by the fungi that causes damping-off disease. A growing mix well suited for growing transplants can be prepared by using one part loamy garden soil, one part shredded peat moss, and one part sand. Sterilize this soil-peat-sand mix by baking it in an oven for about 1 hour at 210 0F.

Ginseng Disease Control - Phytophthora and Alternaria

By: Jeanine Davis, Paul Shoemaker Horticulture Information Leaflet

Phytophthora leaf blight and root rot is a devastating disease which causes a leaf blight and root rot on ginseng. The disease is caused by a fungus, Phytophthora cactorum, which produces spores that are spread by wind, rain, splashing water, and surface water runoff. Root rot is the most serious form of the disease. Therefore, if foliar symptoms are present, preventing spread of the disease from foliage to roots is essential.

Peonies for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Peonies are long-lived, perennial flowers that produce large flowers in the spring. Colors include black, coral, cream, crimson, pink, purple, rose, scarlet, white, and yellow. By planting early, mid-season, and late flowering cultivars, you can have peonies flowering for 6 to 8 weeks. Two types of peonies are grown in North Carolina: garden peonies (Paeonia valbiflora or Paeonia officinalis) and tree peonies (Paeonia suffruticosa). Garden peonies are herbaceous perennials (height 20 to 36 inches) grouped into five types according to flower shape: single, semidouble, double, Japanese, and anemone. Tree peonies produce large numbers of flowers on a shrub-like plant; the stems do not die back each year.

Growing Boxwoods in the Landscape

By: Ervin Evans, Richard Bir, Stephen Bambara Horticulture Information Leaflet

Boxwoods have been an important part of North Carolina landscapes since colonial times; the first plants were introduced to American gardeners in 1652. Boxwoods are suitable for formal and informal landscape use as edging, hedge, screen, accent, and specimen plants. While boxwoods are considered an essential component of historical and colonial gardens, they can also be used in traditional and contemporary landscape designs.

Growing a Fall Vegetable Garden

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Many vegetables are well adapted to planting in the summer for fall harvest. Planting a fall garden will extend the gardening season so you can continue to harvest fresh produce after earlier crops have finished. The fall harvest can be extended even further by providing protection from early frosts or by planting in cold frames or hotbeds.

Winterizing the Herb Garden

By: Linda Blue, Jeanine Davis, Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

If treated properly, many herb plants will survive in the garden for a number of years. Others are sensitive to frost or severe cold weather and must be brought indoors, protected, or replanted each year. Annual herbs will be killed with the first hard frost in the fall. Remove dead plants in order to minimize overwintering insects and disease problems. Some frost sensitive herbs, such as basil and geranium, can be brought indoors for the winter. Take cuttings to root or pot the entire plant.

Edible Flowers

By: Cyndi Lauderdale, Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Flowers have traditionally been used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian English, and Middle Eastern. Early American settlers also used flowers as food. Today, there is a renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color, and fragrance. Edible flowers can be used fresh as a garnish or as an integral part of a dish, such as a salad. Squash flowers can be fried in light batter or cornmeal. Some flowers can be stuffed or used in stir-fry dishes. Edible flowers can be candied; frozen in ice cubes and added to beverages; made into jellies and jams; used to make teas or wines; minced and added to cheese spreads, herbal butters, pancakes, crepes, and waffles. Many flowers can be used to make vinegars for cooking, marinades, or dressings for salad. Herbal flowers normally have the same flavor as their leaves, with the exceptions of chamomile and lavender blossoms, where the flavor is usually more subtle.

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings: Instructions for the Home Gardener

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflet

Some, but not all, plants can be propagated from just a leaf or a section of a leaf. Leaf cuttings of most plants will not generate a new plant; they usually produce only a few roots or just decay. Because leaf cuttings do not include an axillary bud, they can be used only for plants that are capable of forming adventitious buds. Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for propagating some indoor plants. There are several types of leaf cuttings.

Plant Propagation by Layering: Instructions for the Home Gardener

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflet

Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant.

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings: Instructions for the Home Gardener

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflet

Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. However, cuttings from trees such as crape myrtles, some elms, and birches can be rooted.

Starting Plants from Seeds

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflet

Growing your own transplants from seeds indoors can give you a head start on the growing season. In some cases, it may be the only way to obtain plants of a new or special cultivar (variety) that is not widely available through garden centers. To obtain vigorous plants, start with high-quality seed from a reliable source. Select cultivars which provide the plant size, color (flower, foliage, or fruit), and growth habit you want. Choose cultivars adapted to your area. Many vegetable and flower cultivars are hybrids. They may cost more than open pollinated types, but they usually have more vigor, more uniformity, and better growth than non-hybrids.

Overcoming Seed Dormancy: Trees and Shrubs

By: Ervin Evans, Frank Blazich Horticulture Information Leaflet

Seed dormancy is nature's way of setting a time clock that allows seeds to initiate germination when conditions are normally favorable for germination and survival of the seedlings. For example, dogwoods produce mature seeds in the fall, but conditions are not suitable for seedling survival at that time. Thus, dogwoods have developed a mechanism that keeps the seeds dormant until spring when conditions are favorable for germination, as well as, seedling growth and survival.

Home Vegetable Gardening

By: Larry Bass

If you have a home vegetable garden, this publication can help you learn about selecting a site, gardening tools, fertilizer, watering techniques and more.

Home Vegetable Gardening: A Quick Reference Guide

By: Larry Bass

This publication gives home gardeners a list of vegetable varieties that grow well in North Carolina, and it provides information on spacing between plants and planting dates.

Grapes and Berries for the Garden

By: Barclay Poling, Eric Bish, Terry Bland, Gina Fernandez

This guide provides home gardeners with instructions for growing strawberries, blueberries, brambles (blackberries and raspberries) and grapes.

Producing Tree Fruit for Home Use

By: Michael Parker

This publication explains how to plant and take care of fruit trees in the home garden or yard.

Weed Management in Conifer Seedbeds and Transplant Beds

By: Joe Neal

Weeds compete with conifer seedlings for light, water, nutrients and space. Of these, light competition is probably the most detrimental to conifer seedlings. Shading will reduce growth, and generally weaken seedlings making them more susceptible to insects, mites and diseases. Weed competition has also been known to reduce winter hardiness. Consequently, an intensive weed control program is required to produce quality seedlings and transplants.

Growing Blackberries in North Carolina

By: Jim Ballington, Gina Fernandez

This publication provides information to help the commercial grower increase crop production when growing blackberries in North Carolina.

Growing Jerusalem Artichokes

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

This publication offers information on the Jerusalem artichoke, (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as sunchoke, which can be produced throughout the United States. However, the plant is better adapted to the northern two-thirds of the country than the southern third. Most areas of North Carolina are satisfactory for producing the crop although yields are not as good as in cooler climates where the crop is better adapted. Jerusalem artichokes are also often used for pickling purposes.

Controlling Sedges in Landscape Plantings

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflet

More than 40 sedge species may be found in North Carolina landscapes. Although grass-like in many ways, and the nutsedges are often referred to as “nutgrass”, they are not grasses and require different control measures than grasses. Sedges are easily distinguished from grasses by their leafy shoots that produce leaves in “3s” resulting in stems that are triangular in cross section. In contrast, shoots of grasses are flat or round in cross section.

Home Garden - Eggplant

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Eggplant is a warm-season plant that is very susceptible to frost. It requires a relatively long growing season to produce profitable yields. Growth is checked by cool weather. Proper cultural practices can yield a bushel per 10 plants.

Home Garden - Greens

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Leafy greens, such as turnips, mustard, collards, kale, and spinach are cool season crops. They should be grown during early spring or fall for maximum yields and quality, but this season can be extended if desired. Kale and spinach can withstand temperature into the upper teens and are often harvested through winter in the east. The other greens may withstand medium frosts.

Pepper Production (Bell, Small Fruit, and Pimento)

By: Charles Sanders, Charles Averre, Kenneth Sorensen Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet offers information to produce earlier peppers with higher yields and better quality.

Postemergence, Non-Selective Herbicides for Landscapes and Nurseries

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflet

Manual removal of weeds is time consuming, expensive, and often results in damage to landscape plants when intertwined roots of both the weed and the ornamental plant are pulled up. Consequently, postemergence herbicides are often used to remove weeds. Few selective postemergence herbicides are available for use in landscape plantings or nursery stock production. Consequently, nonselective herbicides (which must be selectively applied to avoid injury to desirable plants) are typically used for postemergence annual and perennial weed control. Choosing the right herbicide for the situation is an important decision. Nonselective herbicides (as the term indicates) are not selective about which plants they kill. Any green plant that they contact will be injured or killed. The level of weed control (or ornamental plant injury) resulting from these herbicides depends upon the chemical characteristics, mode of action of the herbicide, and the season of application.

Presprouting Sweetpotatoes

By: Jonathan Schultheis, George Wilson Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sweetpotato seed roots should be pre-sprouted for maximum transplant production. Presprouting is the process by which sweetpotato seed stock is conditioned to produce sprouts (transplants) prior to bedding. Some refer to this as "waking up" the sweetpotatoes after they have been asleep in storage during the winter. This reinforces the often overlooked fact that sweetpotatoes are still alive.

Dahlias for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Dahlias, Dahlia variabilis, are a popular addition to the landscape because they have a wide height range (1 to 6 ft) and a variety of flower shapes and sizes (2 to 12 inches). Color range includes orange, pink, purple, red, scarlet, yellow, and white. Some flowers are striped or tipped with a different color. Dahlias begin blooming in early summer and continue to frost. Flower production may slow with high summer temperatures and moisture stress.

Bearded Iris for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Bearded iris, Iris germanica, is a hardy, long-lived perennial that require a minimum of maintenance. The flowers have six petals; three upright petals (called standards) and three hanging petals (called falls). A fuzzy line or beard runs down the middle of each fall. Flowers come in many colors including blue, pink, purple, reddish, white, yellow, and bi-colors. Most bearded iris flower in the spring (April to June depending on cultivar), but some of the new cultivars re-flower in the summer and fall. The second flower display is not as showy as the spring display but last into the fall. Many re-blooming iris are fragrant.

Caladiums for the Home Landscape

By: Ervin Evans Horticulture Information Leaflet

Caladiums, Caladium bicolor, are grown for their long-lasting, colorful foliage. Color combinations include various shades of red, pink, white, green, and yellow-green, with prominently colored midribs and contrasting margins. There are two basic types of caladium cultivars: fancy- and strap-leaved. Fancy-leaved types have large, heart-shaped or semi-heart-shaped leaves borne on long petioles. The strap- or lance-leaved types have smaller, narrower, thicker, elongated leaves on short petioles giving the plants a more compact habit. Strap-leaved caladiums produce more leaves per tuber than fancy-leaved caladiums. Fancy-leaved types range in height from 12 to 30 inches while most strap-leaved types are under a foot in height.

Smooth and Oakleaf Hydrangeas

By: Ervin Evans, Richard Bir Horticulture Information Leaflet

Two hydrangea species are native to the southeastern United States -- Hydrangea arborescens and Hydrangea quercifolia. Both are bold-textured, deciduous shrubs which produce small, fertile flowers. Many selections are considered more garden-worthy than the native species because they display large, sterile florets.

Fertility Management for Geraniums

By: Brian Whipker Horticulture Information Leaflet

Geraniums require an adequate supply of the essential nutrients and a slightly acidic pH. This leaflet covers some of the basic considerations for fertilizing zonal, ivy, and regal geraniums.

Home Forcing of Potted Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)

By: August DeHertogh Horticulture Information Leaflet

The Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) is a true bulb that originated in the tropical areas of South America. Thus, it is a tender bulb. It performs best when grown under warm (70 to 75 oF) temperatures for 9 to 10 months to promote flowering and vegetative growth, followed by 2 to 3 months of either cool (55 oF) dry storage or cool (55 oF) growing conditions. The use of one of the latter conditions is required to promote reflowering of the bulb.

Home Forcing of Potted Paperwhite (Narcissus)

By: August DeHertogh Horticulture Information Leaflet

"Paperwhite" Narcissus is one of the easiest flower bulbs for homeowners to force. Commercially, several types are available. Some cultivars (varieties) have pure white flowers while others have white perianths with light yellow cups. Paperwhites originate in the Mediterranean and are tender bulbs. Thus, they can be grown outside only in Climatic Zones 8 to 11. Unless one lives in one of these zones, forced bulbs should be discarded.

Home Forcing of Daffodils (Narcissus)

By: August DeHertogh Horticulture Information Leaflet

Causing spring-flowering bulbs such as daffodils (Narcissus) to flower by other than naturally occurring conditions is called "forcing." This practice is carried out by commercial growers the world over. With a little care and effort, homeowners can have a steady supply of daffodils (Narcissus) from late December through April. Forcing bulbs should be a challenge to those who are interested in plants.

Radish

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Radish is a cool-season crop which grows best in spring and fall. It requires 3 to 6 weeks from seeding to harvest. This factsheet covers growing and harvesting radishes in North Carolina.

Commercial Carrot Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Carrots can be produced almost year-round in parts of North Carolina. Both fresh market and processing types hold potential. This publication will assist commercial farmers with growing and harvesting carrots.

Guide to Deciding When to Start snd Stop Irrigation for Frost Protection of Fruit Crops

By: Katharine Perry Horticulture Information Leaflet

The decisions of when to turn an irrigation system on and off for frost protection are complex and difficult. This guide presents a procedure to follow in making these decisions. This guide is based on the assumption that you have completed certain tasks prior to the night of the decision making. These tasks encompass important planning decisions that are made well ahead of the frost season. The tasks are stated here very simply, but this is certainly not meant to imply that they are not critical in this process; it has been done merely to limit the scope of this article. For more information on the tasks leading up to the actual frost night, request Horticulture Information Leaflet No. 705, titled "Frost/Freeze Protection for Horticultural Crops," from your County Extension Center.

Growing Herbs for the Home Gardener

By: Ervin Evans, Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

An herb is any plant used whole or in part as an ingredient for health, flavor, or fragrance. Herbs can be used to make teas; perk up cooked foods such as meats, vegetables, sauces, and soups; or to add flavor to vinegars, butters, dips, or mustards. Many herbs are grown for their fragrance and are used in potpourris, sachets, and nosegays; or to scent bath water, candles, oils, or perfumes. More than 25% of our modern drugs contain plant extracts as active ingredients, and researchers continue to isolate valuable new medicines from plants and confirm the benefits of those used in traditional folk medicine.

Harvesting and Preserving Herbs for the Home Gardener

By: Ervin Evans, Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Herbs should be harvested when the oils responsible for flavor and aroma are at their peak. Proper timing depends on the plant part you are harvesting and the intended use. Herbs grown for their foliage should be harvested before they flower. While chives are quite attractive in bloom, flowering can cause the foliage to develop an off-flavor. Harvest herbs grown for seeds as the seed pods change in color from green to brown to gray but before they shatter (open). Collect herb flowers, such as borage and chamomile, just before full flower. Harvest herb roots, such as bloodroot, chicory, ginseng, and goldenseal, in the fall after the foliage fades.

High-Density Apple Orchard Management Techniques

By: Michael Parker Horticulture Information Leaflet

Commercial apple orchards with trees planted close together on dwarfing or size-controlling rootstocks are referred to as high density plantings. When size-controlling rootstocks are used, tree densities increase from traditional densities of 150 to 250 trees/acre to 500 to 1,000+ trees/acre. Benefits of planting higher-density orchards include earlier production (especially with "fad" varieties); quicker return on investment; training, pruning and harvesting from the ground; potential increased fruit quality; and greater pesticide application efficiency.

Growing Pumpkins and Winter Squash

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Pumpkins were used by American Indians long before Columbus visited our shores, and pumpkins readily found their way to the first Thanksgiving table. Pumpkins were used by early settlers much as we use them today – for food and decoration. This factsheet covers growing and harvesting pumpkins in North Carolina.

Storing Winter Squash and Pumpkins

By: Jonathan Schultheis, Charles Averre Horticulture Information Leaflet

Harvested squash and pumpkins are still very much alive even though they are mature and have been removed from the vine. The objective of curing and storing is to prolong the storage life of the fruit by slowing the rate of respiration and protecting against storage rots.

Growing Gourds

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Gourds are very closely related to cucumbers, squash and melons. They have been grown for both ornamental and utility purposes for many years. Several societies have been established to bring together people who are fascinated by the uniqueness of these plants.

What is the Difference Between a Sweetpotato and a Yam?

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Several decades ago, when orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were introduced in the southern United States, producers and shippers desired to distinguish them from the more traditional, white-fleshed types. The African word nyami, referring to the starchy, edible root of the Dioscorea genus of plants, was adopted in its English form, yam. Yams in the U.S. are actually sweetpotatoes with relatively moist texture and orange flesh. Although the terms are generally used interchangeably, the U.S. Department of Agriculture requires that the label "yam" always be accompanied by "sweetpotato." The following information outlines several differences between sweetpotatoes and yams.

Muskmelons (Cantaloupes)

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Muskmelon is commonly known in the trade as a cantaloupe. However, no cantaloupes are actually grown commercially in the United States, only muskmelons. Cantaloupes are a rough warty fruit while muskmelon have the characteristic netting on the fruit rind. This publication covers the growing and harvesting of muskmelons in North Carolina.

High Density Apple Orchard Management

By: Michael Parker, C. Richard Unrath, Charles Safley, David Lockwood

This publication focuses on the management techniques and economic analysis of orchards with more than 150 to 180 trees per acre.

Sweet Corn Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Field corn was grown in North America before 200 B.C. Field corn is produced primarily for animal feed and industrial uses such as ethanol, cooking oil, etc. In contrast, sweet corn is produced for human consumption as either a fresh or processed product.

Pruning Trees and Shrubs

By: Kim Powell

This publication for property owners and landscapers describes how to prune trees and shrubs properly, which results in attractive, healthy trees and shrubs.

Home Garden - Turnips and Rutabagas

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Turnips and rutabagas are among the most commonly grown and widely adapted root crops. They are members of the Cruciferae or mustard family and belong to the genus Brassica. Turnips are Brassica rapa and rutabagas are Brassica napobrassica. The two are similar in plant size and general characteristics. Turnip leaves are usually light green, thin and hairy, while the rutabagas are bluish- green, thick and smooth. The roots of turnips generally have little or no neck and a distinct taproot, while rutabaga roots are often more elongated and have a thick, leafy neck and roots originating from the underside of the edible root as well as from the taproot.

Home Garden - Celery in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce) can be grown to be harvested in June or October and November. It is not an easy crop to grow. Although it is a cool-season crop, exposure of juvenile plants to temperatures below 40 to 50°F for more than 5 to 10 days can cause premature bolting, ruining the crop. Special attention must be given to maintaining a steady water supply and providing the proper amount of nutrients to allow for constant growth.

Harvesting Vegetables

By: Ervin Evans, Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

The nutritional content, freshness, and flavor that vegetables possess depend upon the stage of maturity and the time of day at which they are harvested. Overly mature vegetables will be stringy and coarse. When possible, harvest vegetables during the cool part of the morning, and process or store them as soon as possible. If for some reason processing must be delayed, cool the vegetables in ice water or crushed ice, and store them in the refrigerator to preserve flavor and quality. The following guidelines can be used for harvesting vegetable crops.

Nursery List of Small Fruit Cultivars for Home Use in North Carolina

By: Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflet

As a service to our readers, we have cross referenced small fruit cultivars with the nurseries where they may be purchased. If any of the nurseries included in this list sells a particular cultivar, the corresponding letter code will appear after the name (e.g. Sweet Charlie Edi, Nou, She). Some cultivars have not been fully tested by NCSU and are included here as worthy of trial. Please consult your local agricultural agent for specific cultivar recommendations best adapted to your area

Geranium Culture for Home Gardeners

By: Alice Russell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Geraniums are among the most popular flowering plants. Outdoors, they are used as annual bedding plants, in hanging baskets, in pots and in window boxes. Indoors, they are cultured as houseplants in sunny locations. Common geraniums are actually members of the genus Pelargonium, while members of the genus Geranium include native wildflowers and herbaceous perennials.

Topping Trees and Flush Cuts

By: Barbara Fair Horticulture Information Leaflet

There are a number of reasons to prune woody plants. One of the most important is to maintain a healthy, safe plant. This is particularly true of trees since dead limbs, topped branches, and poor form can lead to unsafe conditions. You can reduce the amount of pruning needed by selecting the right tree for the site. Trees can range in size from 20 to over 100 feet, and many can get large very quickly.

Bulb Onions

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

The onion is a cool season crop that will withstand moderate freezes. It may be grown either by seeding directly in the field, or by setting transplants. North Carolina growers have an excellent market opportunity in June and July when very few onions are available. Yield will range from 400 to 800 (50-pound) sacks per acre depending on the year and cultural practices. A premium is paid for large onions during our harvest season.

Southern Peas

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Southern peas originated in India in prehistoric times and moved to Africa, then to America. In India Southern peas are known by 50 common names and in the United States are called "Field peas," "Crowder peas," "Cowpeas" and "blackeyes," but Southern peas is the preferred name. This publication covers growing and harvesting Southern peas in North Carolina.

The Flowering Dogwood

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Among the early spring-flowering trees, the dogwood is regarded by most North Carolinians as unrivaled in attractiveness either in its natural woodland habitat or in cultivated landscape gardens. This small, ornamental tree offers landscape interest for all seasons, beginning with its floral display in spring and followed by pleasant green foliage (casting a light shade) in summer. Fall in North Carolina is enhanced by the brilliant show of red, orange, and scarlet foliage along with the bright-red fruit borne in small clusters. In winter, button-shaped buds are prominent on the tips of the twigs. The interesting bark texture and branches help create an excellent winter silhouette.

Natural Areas in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

One of the most important considerations in developing a landscape plan is maintenance. Currently, many homeowners desire a low-maintenance landscape. A popular project for home gardeners is the reduction of lawn areas and problem spots by the incorporation of the "natural area." This is most easily accomplished with a 3- to 4-inch layer of organic mulch such as pine needles, compost or pine straw. Although the area is to appear natural, it should not detract from the overall landscape appearance. Choose a mulch which cannot be easily disturbed by wind or erosion. Define the area with a crisp boundary, i.e., don't have grass growing over into the mulch or mulch spilling over onto the grass.

Ornamental Grasses for North Carolina

Horticulture Information Leaflet

Ornamental grasses are becoming quite popular for North Carolina landscapes. Designers and gardeners realize the fine accent and architectural effect this group of plants contributes to a garden. As one applies the principles of good design — repetition, variety, balance, emphasis, sequence, and scale — along with the design qualities of color, texture, line and form, one appreciates the many uses and functions of ornamental grasses. (The term "ornamental grass" is really a catchall term used to describe all grasslike plants. These would include sedges, reeds, rushes, and a wide host of others.)

Caraway

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a hardy, biennial herb which is native to Europe and Western Asia. First year plants resemble carrots, growing to about 8 inches tall with finely divided leaves and long taproots. By the second year, two to three foot stalks develop topped by umbels of white or pink flowers, which appear from May to August. Some varieties may flower the first year. The seeds are small, brown and crescent shaped.

Chives

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Chives belong to the same family as onions, leeks, and garlic. Although they are native to Asia and Eastern Europe, by the sixteenth century chives were common plants in herb gardens throughout Europe. Chives are hardy, draught tolerant, perennials, eight to twenty inches tall, that grow in clumps from underground bulbs. The leaves are round and hollow, similar to onions, but smaller in diameter. In June or July, chives produce large round flower heads consisting of purple to pink flowers.

Basil

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Basil is a popular herb known for its flavorful foliage. The fresh or dried leaves add a distinctive flavor to many foods, such as Italian style tomato sauces, pesto sauce and salad dressing. The essential oils and oleo-resins may be extracted from leaves and flowers and used for flavoring in liqueurs and for fragrance in perfumes and soaps. This factsheet discusses growing and harvesting basil in North Carolina.

Greenhouse Weed Control

By: Joe Neal Horticulture Information Leaflet

Weeds such as creeping woodsorrel, hairy bittercress, spotted spurge, and others are persistent problems in greenhouses. Not only do these weeds detract from the perceived quality of plants produced, but some also are known to harbor insects, such as whitefly and thrips, and other pests such as mites, slugs and snails. Furthermore, woodsorrel and bittercress are know to be hosts for impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) and tobacco spotted wilt virus (TSWV) which may be vectored to susceptible host crops by certain thrips. Therefore, the removal of weeds from greenhouse pots, benches, and floors is important for aesthetic and pest management reasons. This publication discusses a number of options are available to the greenhouse manager for controlling these pests.

Planting Techniques for Trees and Shrubs

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

A properly planted tree or shrub will be more tolerant of adverse conditions and require much less management than one planted incorrectly. Planting technique impacts water quality as it minimizes water, fertilizer and pesticide use. When making decisions on planting techniques, one should consider how the plant was grown in the nursery, the plant's drainage requirements, the soil type and drainage characteristics, and the availability of irrigation water. The plant should be specifically appropriate to the site, or the site should be amended to specifically fit the plant.

Fertilizing Deciduous Shade Trees in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell

This publication covers when and where to fertilize deciduous trees in North Carolina.

Ginseng Production Guide for North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis

This publication discusses the best techniques for growing quality ginseng. It includes descriptions and stages of growth, and information on general culture, site preparation and mulching.

Commercial Boxwood Production

By: Ted Bilderback, James Baker, Richard Jones, R.E. Bir Horticulture Information Leaflet

Boxwood, thought to have been introduced to the United States in 1652, has long been associated with colonial architecture across North Carolina. It's suitability for formal and informal landscape use as edging, hedge, screen, accent and specimen plants makes boxwood a favorite of homeowners, landscape contractors and nurserymen.

A Guide to Intensive Vegetable Systems

By: D. C. Sanders, Ed Estes, K. B. Perry, David Monks, Kenneth Sorensen, Charles Averre, Michael Linker, Jonathan Schultheis, Mike Boyette, D. Eikhoff

Intensive Vegetable Production refers to a system of marketing and producing vegetable crops in which great attention is placed on detail and optimization of resources such as land, capital, labor, equipment, transportation to market and management time. The objective of such a system is maximum profit for the farm. The system you choose should take into account your location, availability of markets, production seasons and personal interest. This publication covers irrigation, plastic mulch, pest management, precision seeding, market preparation and many other facets of intensive vegetable production.

Raspberries in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling Horticulture Information Leaflet

In the case of specialty or non-traditional small fruit crops in the Southeast, red raspberries seem to get the most interest and coverage by newspapers and popular press. In North Carolina, red raspberries developed in northern United States and southern Canada have difficulty in our hot, humid summer climate of the piedmont and coastal plain. And, in the foothills and mountains of western North Carolina, the raspberry 'floricanes' are especially prone to winter freeze injury as temperatures in these areas may fluctuate in January and February by as much as 40-50 F in a given 24 hr period. Dormanred and Southland are red raspberries with southern adaptation and both show promise in the coastal plain, sandhills and lower piedmont regions of North Carolina where "northern" raspberries do not survive. In the upper piedmont and mountains, Heritage, the "everbearing" variety, is a possibility for the home garden, but it is too disease susceptible for commercial recommendation. Red raspberries have erect canes with the exception of the variety Dormanred that is trailing.

Pruning and Training Thornless Blackberries

By: Barclay Poling, Gina Fernandez Horticulture Information Leaflet

Train semitrailing blackberries to trellises (Figure 1A). The erect blackberry varieties do not require support if the tops of new canes are pruned during the summer to keep growth below 3 to 4 ft. Erect blackberries that are not topped may be trained to a one-wire trellis.

Plants for Seashore Conditions

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

As in any landscape project, a site analysis is recommended before the design and construction stages. This is especially true as a careful selection of plants is very important for coastal landscapes. Plants must be tolerant of extreme adverse conditions in the natural environment. The most influencing force is salt spray. Sand, temperature and wind are also influencing factors in plant choice.

Commercial Potato Production in Eastern North Carolina

By: Douglas Sanders, Nancy Creamer Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet covers growing and harvesting potatoes for commercial sale in North Carolina.

Plasticulture for Commercial Vegetables

By: Doug Sanders, D. Granberry, W.P. Cook

This guide for farmers describes the advantages and disadvantages of using plasticulture to grow vegetables. It includes information on equipment needed, recommended ways to set up a fertigation system and best management practices.

Mini-Gardening

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

Lack of yard space is no excuse for not growing a vegetable garden. Regardless of whether you live in an apartment, condominium or mobile home, some space us available for growing a few of your favorite vegetables. However, the area you choose to grow your garden must receive five hours or more of sunlight daily. As a general rule, leafy vegetables such as cabbage and mustard greens can tolerate more shade than root vegetables like radishes and beets. Vegetables that bear fruit such as peppers, tomatoes, and cucumbers will need the most sun.

Growing Apple Trees in the Home Garden

By: Michael Parker Horticulture Information Leaflet

Growing apple trees in the home garden can be fun and rewarding. Several factors are important to consider before planting for successful apple production. Apple variety and rootstock, site selection, proper planting, training and pruning, adequate fertility, and pest control all contribute to healthy and productive trees. A brief discussion of these considerations follows.

Bunch Grapes in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling Horticulture Information Leaflet

Grapes are welcome summer treats that can be eaten fresh, processed into jellies, jams, juice or even fermented into wine. Grapes are adapted to many soil types, and can be quite long-lived. There are basically two kinds of grapes grown in North Carolina, bunch grapes and muscadine. Bunch grapes produce berries in large clusters, and grow best in the mountains and piedmont areas. In coastal plain areas, Pierce's disease kills or shortens the life expectancy of many popular bunch grapes. Muscadine grapes, exemplified by the Scuppernong variety and noted for having smaller clusters, are not affected by this disease.

North Carolina Basil Production Guide

This publication specifically discusses fresh-market basil, examining the selection, production, harvesting and marketing of the product.

Drought Assistance for Tree Fruit Production

Horticulture Information Leaflet

In the southeastern United States the potential for a drought during the growing season is a very real probability. The length and severity of droughts vary greatly and cannot be predicted, so planning is critical in order to minimize the effects of a drought. However, the potential for a drought is such that current recommendations for fruit orchards include irrigation as an integral part of fruit production and not as an option. With perennial tree fruit crops it is best to take a proactive position rather than waiting for a drought before taking action. Many orchards are poorly located where water is not readily available. Also, in mature orchards, where fruit trees are relatively deep rooted, installation of an irrigation system during a drought period is impractical and usually not as effective.

Bean Sprouts and Other Vegetable Seed Sprouts

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sprouts from mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) been used for food since ancient times. These sprouts have nutrient value similar to asparagus and mushroom, which contain high quantities of Vitamin A. Sprouts can be canned or frozen in addition to eating them fresh. Mung bean seeds can be purchased from mail-order commercial seed companies and health food chain stores. (Caution: Regardless of the source, do not use seeds that have been treated with a fungicide. Treated seeds are not edible and can be recognized by the coating of pink or green dust on the seed coat.)

Shrubs 8'+ for North Carolina Landscapes

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

There are many excellent large landscape plants for all of North Carolina. Practical uses would include large plants as screening plantings or tall specimen or accent plants. The modern practice of "tree form" shrubs is best realized from plants in this category. Foundation plantings can also be implemented where the buildings/structures are very large in scale. Typically, this would be municipal, commercial or industrial projects. The plants in this category offer both deciduous and evergreen choices, flowering and berry producing plants, along with cultivars with interesting bark and foliage textures. When properly selected and located, the plants in this category will certainly enhance the landscape setting. As many of these plants are fast growing and can easily reach 15-20 feet in height, be sure to give them the required growing space.

Small and Intermediate Trees for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Small and intermediate size trees play an important role in the landscape. They can be quite functional and offer seasonal beauty. These trees are generally very easy to maintain and require a minimum of pruning.

Large Trees for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Large trees are dominant features in the landscape. Many plans rely on trees for several design functions: to provide background, enclosure, define spaces, help reduce noise and unsightly views. Trees also provide needed shade, channel breezes, and break forceful winds. They also help the environment by filtering pollutants and exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide.

Hollies in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

The Holly (Ilex) genus is very popular among landscape architects, nurserymen and home gardeners. Horticulturalists recognize approximately 20 American Holly species, 120 Oriental species, and nearly 200 varieties of the English Holly.

Junipers in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Junipers are grown all across North Carolina, in just about every landscape situation: around ski villages at Beech Mountain or around ocean-front cottages on Bald Head Island. There are over 170 species and varieties being grown by American nurserymen. North Carolinians typically choose certain junipers found in the species J. chinensis, J. horizontalis, J. sabina, J. communis, J. procumbens, J. conferta, and of course, J. virginiana - commonly known as Red Cedar.

Roses for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sooner or later most home gardeners think about growing roses. Landscape uses are quite varied because of the many different types of roses. They can be mass planted in beds, used as specimen or trained plants, planted as screens or hedges, or located near fences or arbors and allowed to climb. Several miniature cultivars can even be used as a ground cover or as edging material. Roses are available in almost any color imaginable and are suited to a number of sites.

Crapemyrtles for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Lagerstroemia, crapemyrtle as it is commonly known, is a favorite small tree or large shrub for many southern gardeners. The common name crapemyrtle was derived from the crinkled petals on the end of a long, narrow stem and the similarity of the leaves to a myrtle. Crapemyrtle, also known as "Flower of the South", performs beautifully in all areas of North Carolina except in the highest elevations of Hardiness Zone 6. The name indica is actually a misnomer as the plant is native to China and not India. Lagerstroemia indica is the most frequently cultivated in the United States although several other species are quite valuable in other warmer parts of the world.

Precision Seeding for Vegetable Crops

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Precision seeding is defined as the placing of desired numbers of seeds at a precise depth and spacing. Precision seeding has many advantages for the vegetable grower over conventional dribble (Planet Jr.) or multiseed drop-plate seeding systems (most corn planters). However, the seeding accuracy is not a substitute for proper land preparation, irrigation, and other crop management practices necessary to obtain a good stand of a vegetable crop. Precision seeding simply allows the vegetable grower to reduce cost and increase reliability of his crop production.

Mulches

By: Mark Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Homeowners and professional landscapers depend on mulch in the ornamental plantings for several reasons. Functionally, mulches discourage weeds from growing, conserve moisture during drought periods, allow better use of water by controlling runoff and increasing water-holding capacity of light, sandy soils. Mulches help maintain a uniform soil temperature. A 3- to 4-inch layer of mulch can add to the aesthetic value of a garden while protecting the base of plants from being injured by mechanical equipment.

Espalier

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

An espaliered plant is one that has been trained to grow in one plane. In the 17th Century, 'espalier' originally referred to the frame or trellis on which the plant was trained. Today, espalier refers to both the two-dimensional tree or shrub or the horticultural technique of actually training the plant.

Vines for North Carolina Landscapes

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

There are several vines which should interest North Carolina gardeners and landscapers. Vines, when used correctly, can be quite an aesthetic and functional addition to the landscape. Basically, there are three types of vines: those that climb by attaching tendrils to a means of support, those that climb by attaching rootlike arms to a wall, and those that climb by twining. The type of vine which is planted will determine the necessity for a supporting fence, arbor, or wall. Maintenance of both the vine and the structure should also be considered. It would be inadvisable to plant a vine which climbs by tendrils next to a painted wooden wall. When a vine requires moving, it is recommended to cut back severely, replant, and allow the vine to rejuvenate.

Qualifiers for Quagmires: Landscape Plants for Wet Sites

By: Thomas Ranney, Richard Bir, Kim Powell, Ted Bilderback Horticulture Information Leaflet

Wet, poorly drained soils present one the most difficult challenges for growing plants in the landscape. Excessive moisture displaces oxygen in the soil and plant roots can suffocate as a result. Many plants are intolerant of having their roots submerged for extended periods of time. Even though standing water may not be present, poor drainage is often responsible for reduced growth and survival of plants in our landscapes.

Broccoli Production Guide for Western North Carolina

By: Jeanine Davis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Broccoli is a popular vegetable for use both fresh and frozen. The edible portion of the broccoli plant consists of the upper stem and the unopened flower buds. Broccoli is a cool-season crop that is closely related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, mustard, and turnips. It can be grown in western North Carolina as either an early (spring) or a late season (fall) crop at the lower elevations (below 2,500 feet) or during mid-summer at elevations above 2,500 feet.

Voles in Horticultural Plantings

By: Peter Bromley, William Sullivan, Michael Parker Wildlife Damage Management

This publication will help you identify voles and the damage they cause. In addition to providing information on controlling vole populations to reduce damage, this publication also outlines an early warning system that you can use to prevent problems from becoming severe.

Urban Trees for Use Under Utility Lines

By: Thomas Ranney, Richard Bir, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Selecting trees for use under utility lines presents a unique challenge. It is often desirable to have trees that are large enough to provide shade, architectural effects, and ornamental features, all without interfering with overhead utility lines. Below we have listed trees that have a typical mature height of less than 30 ft. In most cases the mature height listed is very optimistic. If growing conditions are not ideal, the mature height can be considerably less than what is indicated. The height of utility lines vary considerably and care should be taken to select trees with mature sizes that are less than the overhead clearance. If possible, it is often desirable to set trees back from the utility lines. In doing so, larger maturing trees (see HIL-8638, Large Trees for North Carolina) can be selected if they are planted at a distance of 1/2 the diameter of the mature crown from the wires.

Weed Management for Wildflowers

By: Lena Gallitano, W Skroch, Douglas Bailey Horticulture Information Leaflet

The use of wildflowers in the landscape has increased since Lady Bird Johnson first promoted them in the late 1960's and early 1970's. Wildflowers were further popularized by the "Meadow in a Can" seed collections that were marketed in the early 1980's. A number of books have been written that describe methods for planning and planting wildflowers, however, few recommendations are available regarding maintenance and long-term weed management. In wildflower plantings, weed management is a complex system that requires knowledge of the specific wildflowers and weeds, environmental conditions, and control methods. Therefore, the objective of this leaflet is to discuss weed management strategies that can be applied to the planning, establishment, maintenance and renovation stages of a naturalized wildflower planting.

Using Pines in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

There are several selected pines species which are used in North Carolina landscapes, most being large tree forms. Pines are important to North Carolina not only for the ornamental value but also for lumber, watershed management, resin, turpentine and Christmas trees. There are over 100 species of the genus Pinus recognized worldwide, of which 36 are native to the United States.

Protecting Plants From Cold Damage

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

During the winter months it is necessary to offer protection to certain North Carolina landscape plants. Winter protection does not mean to keep plants warm, as this is virtually impossible but to provide protection from damaging wind, heavy snow and ice, the alternate freezing and thawing of the soil beneath the plants and heat from the sun on very cold days.

The Use of Small and Intermediate Size Trees in the Landscape

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

We depend on plants to solve our functional and aesthetic needs in various landscape situations. A popular group of plants being recommended and used in modern landscapes is intermediate and small-sized trees. The trees in this category mature to a particular size and are quite "well-behaved" in the landscape. Generally, the trees, both evergreen and deciduous, mature to a height of 35 feet or less.

Azalea Culture for North Carolina Gardeners

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

To insure a successful azalea planting, cultural requirements, planting techniques, and maintenance should be well understood.

Conserving Energy with Plants

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Never before has the demand for energy been as high -- and never before have homeowners become so increasingly aware of the energy savings possible with landscaping. Although it is not possible to control temperature, wind, and other natural elements, certain landscape practices can help modify the climate in and around the home.

Shrubs 1-4' for North Carolina Landscapes

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Landscapers and home gardeners rely upon plants in this size category because of their relatively low maintenance demands. Modern trends in landscaping depict this growing concern by utilizing groundcovers, dwarf, or slow-growing shrubs.

Shrubs 4-8' for North Carolina Landscapes

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Shrubs in this category are useful in landscape situations as hedges, small screens, accent plants, large mass plantings, and large foundation shrubs. These plants can be pruned periodically and maintained at a reasonable size. Mid-size hedges would utilize shrubs such as Abelia, Barberry, Inkberry and Yew. Informal screens could use the Hollies, Aucuba (in shade), Hibiscus or Rhododendrons. Pampas grass, Pieris, Viburnum and Mahonia could be strong accent plants because of their individual form, texture and plume or berry features. Mass plantings are easily accomplished by using the flowering shrubs, Kalmia, Azaleas, Weigila and Rhododendron. The plants listed below vary quite drastically in their individual characteristics, but the one common denominator is that they can all be kept in a size range of 4-8' in height or smaller.

Superior Crabapple Trees for the Landscape

By: Thomas Ranney, Mike Benson, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

Flowering crabapples have tremendous potential as small/ medium sized flowering trees that can be grown all across North Carolina. These deciduous, spring flowering trees are adaptable to a wide range of soil conditions and have a variety of ornamental characteristics to choose from, including an assortment of flower color and fragrance, fruit size and color, and tree form.

Low Investment Propagation / Winter Protection Structure

By: Ted Bilderback, Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet covers the basics of constructing a propagation / winter protection structure in a quonset design.

Strawberries in the Home Garden

By: Barclay Poling Horticulture Information Leaflet

Strawberries are a welcome addition to any home garden. They are relatively easy to grow, require a minimum of space, and virtually no chemicals are needed. From as few as 25 transplants to start a matted row, a berry yield in excess of 50 pounds can be achieved one year after planting. Strawberries require a site that is open to direct sunlight most of the day. Try to avoid very low-lying areas prone to spring frosts, and you should definitely plan to purchase a white spunbonded row cover to protect open strawberry blossoms from spring frosts/freezes. The same cover may be used for bird control during harvest.

Bloom and Ripening Timing of Apple Varieties in North Carolina

By: Michael Parker Horticulture Information Leaflet

This factsheet offers a chart with commonly-grown apple varieties in North Carolina and their relative bloom date.

A Simple Intermittent Mist System For Propagation

By: Ted Bilderback, Kim Powell, R.E. Bir Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sophisticated propagation structures are not always required to successfully root ornamental plants. Summer propagation of many woody ornamentals can be accomplished by rooting softwood or semi-hardwood shoots in inexpensive frames equipped with an intermittent mist system. During high summer temperatures, leafy soft shoots root more readily if structures are equipped with mist.

Pruning Field Grown Shade and Flowering Trees

By: Ted Bilderback, Kim Powell, R.E. Bir Horticulture Information Leaflet

Every nurseryman should know how to prune trees and the reason for the various pruning practices. Many landscape problems can be avoided if correct pruning is performed, while the tree is growing in the nursery. Incorrect pruning practices or lack of pruning diminish the quality of the plant material.

Azaleas for North Carolina

By: Kim Powell Horticulture Information Leaflet

As one travels across North Carolina it is quite evident that azaleas are favorite ornamental plants for home gardeners and professional landscapers. Azaleas offer a wide range of size, form and color, and can be used as specimen plant accents or as a mass planting. Flowering dates are from late March to late June with both ever-green and deciduous types avail-able. Azaleas can be grown all across the state (Zones 6,7,8,9), but in order for these shrubs to grow, mature, flower profusely, and generally contribute to the total landscape, an understanding of the different kinds of azaleas, the culture, and environmental factors is necessary.

Composting: A Guide to Managing Organic Yard Wastes

By: Ted Bilderback, Larry Bass, Kim Powell

This eight-page publication explains how you can build and maintain a compost pile to manage organic yard waste at home.

Container Vegetable Gardening

By: Larry Bass Horticulture Information Leaflet

Many people who live in an apartment, condominium, or mobile home do not grow a vegetable garden because space is not available for a garden plot. Lack of yard space is no excuse for not gardening, since many kinds of vegetables can be readily grown in containers. In addition to providing five hours or more of full sun, attention must be given to choosing the proper container, using a good soil mix, planting and spacing requirements, fertilizing, watering, and variety selection.

Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden

By: Larry Bass, Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Much success in growing tomatoes can be attributed to use of a few proven techniques. Choosing a variety that has proven to be a true performer should be at the top of every gardener's list. Better Boy, Whopper, Celebrity, and Mountain Pride are among some of the best selections. Better Boy, Celebrity, and Whopper are VFN, which means they carry resistance to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and root-knot nematodes. It is best to experiment with several varieties in order to find the ideal tomato for your taste buds.

Guidelines for Sweetpotato Seed Stock and Transplant Production

By: Jonathan Schultheis Horticulture Information Leaflet

Sweetpotato production should be planned as a part of your total annual farm management scheme. Sweetpotatoes should not be grown just "once in a while" or just in those years you think you'll be able to "get rich quick." Commitment to an ongoing production program is required in order for you to be a successful grower.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs: Trials in North Carolina

By: Paul Nelson

The North Carolina Agricultural Research Service tested selected tulip and daffodil (Narcissus spp.) cultivars for four years. Trials were conducted in three climate zones so that results could be extrapolated to most of the United States. This publication for gardeners explains how to prepare the site for planting, how to select the right cultivars, how to fertilize and provides the trial results for spring-flowering bulbs.

Peach Cultivars

By: Dennis Werner, Dave Ritchie

The purpose of this bulletin is to summarize the specific characteristics of the cultivars released by the NCARS. A brief description of the important characteristics will be followed by a review of each cultivar in order of ripening sequence. Ripening dates provided are average dates calculated from years of observation at the Sandhills Research Station.

Growing Pears in North Carolina

By: Melvin Kolbe

This publication covers various aspects of growing pears in North Carolina, including soil, varieties, disease and insect control and harvesting and storage.

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