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Ruminant Preference for Bermudagrass Hay With and Without Exposure to Swine Lagoon Effluent

By: J.C. Burns, D.S. Fisher, E.S. Leonard

Bermudagrass hays cut from a swine lagoon spray field prior to and following effluent application and hays cut from a non-waste bermudagrass field were evaluated for preference based on short-term dry matter intake by cattle, sheep, and goats.

A Guide to Biomass Fuels in North Carolina

By: Matthew Veal, William G. Brown

This publication gives an overview of biomass fuels, important characteristics for consumers to consider, and the economics of using these fuels.

Potential in the Upper South for Interseeding a Legume into Upland Switchgrass: Yield and Nutritive Value

By: J. C. Burns, D. S. Fisher, E. S. Leonard

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a long-term perennial, warm-season grass, declines in nutritive value with advancing maturity and increased yield potential. This experiment evaluated the potential of interseeding either perennial legumes or an annual legume into an established stand of upland switchgrass to improve nutritive value while attaining desirable dry matter yields.

Maximizing Your SmartFresh™ Investment

By: Michael Parker, Steve McArtney, Robert Tom Hoyt, J.D. Obermiller Horticulture Information Leaflet

SmartFresh™ (1-methylcyclopropene, MCP) is a relatively new tool for postharvest management of apples. In 2002, SmartFresh™ was approved for commercial use on apples by the Environmental Protection Agency under a reduced risk program because of the very low toxicity of the product and the fact that treated fruit have no detectable residue. It is thought to bind irreversibly to the ethylene receptors in plant tissues making the crops insensitive to ethylene and subsequently retarding many of the ethylene mediated responses such as fruit softening in apples. SmartFresh™ can maintain apple firmness and acidity and decrease scald and greasiness even when stored under less than ideal storage temperatures.

Strategic Conservation Planning for the Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team

By: Louise Alexander-Vaughn, Jaime Collazo, C. Ashton Drew

The Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team (ENCSEVA) is a partnership among local federal agencies and programs with a mission to apply Strategic Habitat Conservation to accomplish priority landscape-level conservation within its geographic region. ENCSEVA seeks to further landscape-scale conservation through collaboration with local partners. To accomplish this mission, ENCSEVA is developing a comprehensive Strategic Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan) to provide guidance for its members, partners, and collaborators by establishing mutual conservation goals, objectives, strategies, and metrics to gauge the success of conservation efforts.

Choosing and Using Edible Flowers

By: Cyndi Lauderdale, Lucy Bradley

Flowers have traditionally been used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian English, and Middle Eastern. Early American settlers also used flowers as food. Today, there is a renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color, and fragrance. Many herbal flowers have the same flavor as their leaves, though others, such as chamomile and lavender blossoms, have a subtler flavor.

Selecting a Strip-Till Rig

By: Alan Meijer SoilFacts

Selecting the right tool for a job is essential. When that tool is as important and expensive as a farm implement, the same holds true—you want to buy farm equipment that does what you want; is strong, durable, and reliable; and is generally the best value for your money.

Tips for Produce Growers Marketing Fresh Produce to Retail Grocers: Understanding PLU and UPC Codes

By: Ariel Fugate, Patricia Tripp, Joanna Lelekacs Local Foods

PLU and UPC codes are two widely used tracking mechanisms that help retailers efficiently ring produce into the register in the checkout lane, track sales, control inventory, and market products. Being knowledgeable about these labels in advance of approaching a retailer shows a grower’s awareness of the retailer’s industry. This fact sheet contains information adapted from the Produce Marketing Association (Produce Marketing Association 2013).

Backyard Composting of Yard, Garden, and Food Discards

By: Rhonda Sherman

Describes how to build and maintain a composting pile to use the compost in your yard or garden.

NCSU Sports Turf App 

By: Charles Peacock, Jenifer Jordan

The NCSU Sports Turf App provides instant access to field maintenance information.

Goods from Your Woods

By: Kelly Mance, Sarah Warren, Erin Sills, Liessa Bowen Tree Tips

Do you have a lot of trees on your land? This publication offers ways to make money from your woods without selling all your trees.

Los Bienes De Su Bosque

By: Kelly Mance, Sarah Warren, Erin Sills, Liesssa Bowen Tree Tips

¿Tiene usted muchos árboles en su tierra? ¿Le gustaría ganar dinero de su bosque sin vender todos sus árboles?

2014 Peanut Information

By: David Jordan, Rick Brandenburg, Blake Brown, Gary Bullen, Gary Roberson, Barbara Shew

This guide for growers, updated annually, provides information on production and pest management practices applicable to growing peanuts in North Carolina.

La Ayuda De Un Cosultor Forestal

By: Kelly Mance, Erin Sills, Sarah Warren, Rick Hamilton Tree Tips

¿Tiene usted muchos árboles en su tierra? ¿Le gustaría recibir ayuda para cuidar sus árboles? ¿Le gustaría ganar dinero por cuidar su bosque? Si está interesado, un consultor forestal lo puede ayudar.

Getting Help from a Consulting Forester

By: Kelly Mance, Erin Sills, Sarah Warren, Rick Hamilton Tree Tips

Do you have a lot of trees on your land? Do you need help taking care of those trees? Would you like to make money form your trees? If so, a forester can help.

Getting Started with Your Woods

By: Kelly Mance Tree Tips

Have you just purchased or inherited land? If your land includes lots of trees, here are some important things to know.

Empezando Con Su Terreno

By: Kelly Mance Tree Tips

¿Ha comprado o recibido por herencia un terreno? Si su tierra tiene muchos árboles, hay cosas importantes que usted debe saber.

Commercial Asparagus Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Asparagus has been grown for many years. The Ancient Greeks and Romans relished this crop. It originated in Asia Minor and is a member of the lily family. California, Michigan, and Washington are the major producing states, but there is some commercial production in many of the northern and western states. Warm regions such as Northern Mexico and Southern California also grow it. Recent research has shown that asparagus can be grown at a profit in North Carolina.

Green Bunch Onion Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

When onions are harvested in the green or immature stage they are called "green bunch onions." These onions are sold in bunches tied with a rubber band. This is a popular crop for home and market gardeners in the fall, winter and early spring. Acreages are usually small because of the amount of hand labor required for planting and preparation for market.

Okra Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Okra is grown throughout North Carolina in home gardens and for commercial markets. It is a warm season crop that belongs to the cotton (Mallow) family and should not be planted until the soil has thoroughly warmed in the spring. Okra is referred to as 'Gumbo' in some areas.

Pepper Production (Bell, Small Fruit, and Pimento)

By: Charles Sanders, Charles Averre, Kenneth Sorensen Horticulture Information Leaflet

By following the steps listed below, you will be able to produce earlier peppers with higher yields and better quality. (For more complete information, consult Extension bulletin AG-387, Commercial Pepper Production in North Carolina.)

Commercial Carrot Production

By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Carrots can be produced almost year-round in parts of North Carolina. Both fresh market and processing types hold potential. Fresh market types are 3/4 to 1 1/4 inch diameter, have excellent, uniform color and a small core. Processing carrots are large in diameter (2 to 3 inches) but still have good flavor, color and sweetness. Spring-seeded carrots usually require at least 120 days to reach optimum size and color. The fall crop usually needs 130 or more days to reach the same stage.


By: Douglas Sanders Horticulture Information Leaflet

Cauliflower is a cool season crop, closely related to broccoli, cabbage, kale, turnips and mustard. It is more exacting in its climatic requirements than most other crops in this family. It grows best in a comparatively cool temperature with a moist atmosphere. The plant is extremely sensitive to unfavorable conditions, such as unusually hot weather, drought or too low temperature, which often result in the formation of premature heads or curds. These "baby" cauliflower heads are called "buttons". With proper management cauliflower can be grown in North Carolina as either a spring or fall crop, although the fall crop will generally produce better quality. For more complete information consult Commercial Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower and Greens, Extension Bulletin, AG-487.

Norovirus Outbreaks on the Increase in North Carolina

By: Benjamin Chapman, Doug Powell Food Safety Infosheet

This infosheet describes 2012 outbreaks of norovirus in North Carolina and steps to take to avoid spreading the virus.

Mold Testing

This publication discusses the pros and cons of mold testing in a home.

Energy Pellets: A Heating Fuel Resource for North Carolina Farms and Homes

By: Matthew Veal, Edward Godfrey III

This publication explains the pelleting process and considerations for consumers interested in either developing small-scale heating pellet production systems or burning pellets to meet their heating needs.

Sweet Sorghum Production to Support Energy and Industrial Products

By: Matthew Veal, Mari S. Chinn, Matthew Whitfield

This publication offers an overview of the cultivation, harvest, and marketing opportunities of sweet sorghum in North Carolina and the Southeast.

Ethanol and Two-Stroke Cycle Engines: Impacts of an Alternative Fuel in Small Engines

By: Matthew Veal

Because ethanol has different combustion characteristics than gasoline, some people suggest it will cause harm to two-stroke engines found in all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), lawn and garden equipment, and marine engines. Two-stroke engines require an oil and gas mixture for a fuel source, and the oil and gas are mixed in a ratio specified by the engine manufacturer. Fortunately, the concern with ethanol blended fuels is primarily associated with older engines. The majority of engine manufacturers have now designed their engines to run on E-10 blends (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline), but some precautions still remain. This bulletin will discuss the reasoning behind these precautions and why owners of some equipment powered by two-stroke engines may have concerns.

Home Safety for Young Children

By: Sarah Kirby

This publication addresses common home safety hazards for young children and remedies for these hazards.

Carbon Monoxide

The publications addresses the dangers of carbon monoxide and provides ways to protect families from harm or death related to carbon monoxide.

Control Asthma in Your Home Environment

The publication addresses ways to control asthma and allergies in the home environment.

Angular Leafspot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Jean Harrison, Garrett Ridge

Angular leaf spot is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas fragariae and occurs frequently in NC and surrounding States. The pathogen is introduced on infected plant material, is difficult to control but economic damage is often low.

Anthracnose Crown Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison

Anthracnose crown rot is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease can cause significant economic damage to strawberry nursery and fruit production systems, particularly in the southeastern production region. This article highlights the symptoms and signs of the disease, disease cycle, methods for diagnosis and integrated management recommendations.

Black Root Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws

Black root rot is caused by a complex of pathogens. These pathogens cause damage to the root structure reducing the fibrous structure and turning roots black. Dysfunctional roots leads to plant stunting and decreased yields.

Leather Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge

Leather rot is caused by Phytophthora cactorum. The pathogen colonizes the fruit and causes brown lesions. The fruit will be bitter. It occurs rarely in NC.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot of Strawberry

By: Frank Louws, Garrett Ridge, Jean Harrison

Anthracnose is an important disease of strawberry with all parts of the plant (fruit, crowns, leaves, petioles and runners) being susceptible to the disease. Disease control is difficult when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development (see predisposing conditions below) and if inoculum is present. The disease can be especially destructive to susceptible California strawberry cultivars (e.g. Chandler, Camarosa, Albion) when grown on black plastic.

Strawberry Crown Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of strawberry crown borer.

European Corn Borer in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack

This factsheet describes the biology and management of European Corn Borer in strawberries.

Garden Symphylan in Strawberries

By: Hannah Burrack Strawberry insects

This factsheet describes the biology and management of garden symphylan in strawberries.